Start Arigun Dou Bin Xiangshi? Fude? Namjal? Zhanyinbao
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About us


Historical Background


List of Officers


Fragment right: Officer Machang


Fragment left: Officer Doubin a.o.


Overview Officers on the Photo


Literature



Lists on this website (for download as a Word document)


Total List of Battle Paintings, August 2009 (see Historical Background)
Total List of Officers, August 2009 (see List of Officers)



Auctions + Total Result Lists (for download as .pdf)

Sotheby's NY - June 1986 - Zhanyinbao 1b14 (“Hu Er Cha Ba”) + Orientations January 1987, p. 71
Sotheby's NY - April 1987 - Fuheng 1a1 ("Fu Heng")
Sotheby's NY - June 1992 - 17smallOfficers
Who knows where these 17 portraits are? Unfortunately they seem to be lost.
Sotheby's NY - Dec 1992 - Wufu 1b12 (“Wu Fu”)
Sotheby's NY - June 1993 - Tanibu 1b41 (“Te Gu Si Ba”)
Sotheby's Amsterdam - October 1994 - No. 11 - E-hui Taiwan ("Abatolu")
Christie´s NY - 1996 - Uksiltu - 1b29 (“Keshiki Batu Luwuke Shier”)

All other auctions are available online on the auction houses websites


E.J.Brill: catalogue 544, 1985 (18 oil portraits offered)


Presumably fake portraits were sold at:
- Zhonggou Jiade (China Guardian) Beijing: Zhongguo gudai huhua
  (Chinese Classical Paintings and Calligraphy), 21 April 1999,
  lot 811: Portraits of Meritorious Officers (pdf)
- Artron Auction, 2 January 2009, lot 0136 (pdf)
- Clars Auction Gallery, Oakland, CA: 11 January 2009, lot 6309 (pdf)
- Bonhams SF, 28 July 2009 lot 1299 and 9 November 2010 lot 8363 (pdf)
- Skinner Auctions, Boston, MA: Asian Works of Art Session I, 20 April 2012,
  Lot 189 (pdf)
- Michaans Auctions, Alameda, California, 8 May 2012, lot 575 (pdf)
- Slawinski Auction Company, Scotts Valley, California: Chinese and Japanese,
  27 May 2012, lot 8531 (pdf)
- RB Gallery (liveauctioneers), 21 Sept. 2014, lot 3438 (pdf, jpg1, jpg2, jpg3, jpg4, jpg5, jpg6).
- Massol, Paris, 18 December 2015, lot 28 (pdf)


Literature (for download as .pdf)

Anonyme: Précis historique de la guerre, Paris 1791

Jean-Joseph-Marie Amiot:
Hymne Tartare Mantchou, Chanté à l'occasion de la Conquête du Kin-Tchouen, Paris 1792.
Monument de la Conquête des Eleuths, Memoirs concernant les Chinois 1, 1776, pp. 325-404
Monument de la Transmigration des Tourgouths, Memoirs concernant les Chinois 1, 1776, p. 405-418 + p. 419-431
Lettre du P. Amiot, Missionnaire de la Chine, sur la Réduction des Miao-tsée, en 1775, and others; Memoirs concernant les Chinois 3, 1778, pp. 387-431
Autre relations de la conquête du pays de Miao-tsée, Memoirs concernant les Chinois 3, 1778, pp. 412-422
Ueber die Unterjochung der Eleuthen oder der Kalmucken (Erläuterungen eines steinernen Denkmals, auf welchem die Eroberung des Königreichs der Eleuthen in sinesischen Versen, die der Kaiser Qianlong selber gefertigt hat, beschrieben steht), Abhandlungen Sinesischer Jesuiten, 1778, pp. 539-664
Le Frère Attiret au service de K'ien-long (1739-1768), Bulletin de l'Université l'Aurore 1943, pp. 435-474 (réédite par Henry Bernard)

Backhouse, Edmund / Bland, John O. P.:
Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking, three prints

Bawden, Charles R.:
The Mongol rebellion of 1756-1757, Journal of Asian History 1968, pp. 1-31

Bergmann, Benjamin:
Nomadische Streifereien unter den Kalmüken in den Jahren 1802 und 1803, Geschichte der Kalmükenflucht von der Wolga, Riga 1804

Berliner, Nancy:
The emperor looks west, The Magazine Antiques, March 2007, pp. 89-94

Beurdeley, Cécile and Michel:
Giuseppe Castiglione, A Jesuit Painter at the Court of the Chinese Emporers, London 1972, p. 79-88
Castiglione, peintre Jésuite a la cour de Chine, Paris 1971 (same a above)
Peintres Jésuites en Chine au 18e siècle, Paris 1997

van den Brandt:
Un manuscript inédit de »Conquetes de K´ien-Long«, Monumenta Serica 1939, pp. 85-115

Bormanshinov, Arash:
Some Recent Develompemnts in Kalmyk and Oirat Studies, Zentralasiatische Studien 1988, pp. 152-162

Boulnois, Lucette:
Chinese maps and prints on the Tibet-Gorkha war of 1788-92, Kailash 1989, pp. 85-112

Bouyer, Raymond:
Les revues: Les Conquetes de I'Empereur de la Chine par Paul Pelliot, La Revue de l'Art Ancien et Moderne, 41.1922, p. 96

British Museum Quarterly, Volume 3, 1928-1929, pp. 80-81

Brown, Claudia:
Transcending Turmoil: Painting at the Close of China's Empire, 1796-1911, Orientations 1993, pp. 66-71

Bügener, Annette:
The Qianlong Emperor and His Bannermen, 2005
Wer ist der Offizier?, Hildesheimer Kalender 2005, pp. 161-167
Die Heldengalerie des Qianlong-Kaisers, 2015

Bushell, Stephen W.:
Chinese Art, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1909

Chaudon, L. M. (Louis Mayeul):
Dictionnaire universel, 1810, p. 316 (HELMAN)

Chen Shou-yi:
Les Conquêtes de l'Empereur de la Chine, Honolulu Academy of Arts Annual Bulletin 1940, pp. 3-19

Cordier, Henry:
Les marchands hanistes de Canton, T'oung Pao 1902, pp. 303-306
Bibliotheca Sinica, Volume 1 1904, pp. 631-642
La Chine en France au 18e siecle, Paris 1910, pp. 55-69
Les conquêtes de l'empereur de la Chine, Mémoires concernant l'Asie Orientale, Inde, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient 1913, pp. 1-18
Les correspondants de Bertin: Secrétaire d'État au XVIII siècle, Lettre de 12 octobre 1766, T'oung Pao 1920 XVIII, pp. 332-339
Histoire générale de la Chine et de ses relations avec les pays étrangers, 1920 (III), pp. 346-350

Courant, Maurice:
L'Asie Centrale aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: Empire Kalmouk ou Empire Mantchou?, Lyon 1912

di Cosmo, Nicola:
The Empire and the Khanate, 2005 (excerpt)

东方杂志 Dongfang Zazhi: 明清之際中國美術所受西洋之影響 On the European Influence on Chinese Art during the Ming and Qing Dynasty, January 1930

Eichhorn, W.:
Kolonialkämpfe der Chinesen in Turkestan während der Periode Ch´ien-lung, Zeitschrift der Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 1942, pp. 261-325

Entenmann, Robert:
Andreas Ly on the First Jinchuan War in Western Sichuan 1747-1749, Sino-Western Cultural Relations Journal 1997, pp. 6-21

Fang, Chaoying:
A Technique for Estimating the Numerical Strength of the Early Manchu Military Forces, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 1950, pp. 192-215

Franke / Laufer:
Epigraphische Denkmäler aus China, 1914, plates 31-70

Fuchs, Walter:
Die Schlachtenbilder aus Turkestan von 1765 als historische Quelle, Monumenta Serica 1939, pp. 116-124
Die Entwürfe der Schlachtenkupfer der Kienlung- und Taokuang-Zeit, Monumenta Serica 1944, pp. 101-122
Galdanica. Miszellen zum Kriege Kanghsi's gegen Galdan, Monumenta Serica 1944, pp. 174-198
Der Kupferdruck in China vom 10. bis 19. Jahrhundert, Gutenberg Jahrbuch 1950
New Material on Chinese Battle Paintings of the Eighteenth Century, Japanese National Commission for Unesco, Symposium Papers, Tokyo 1959, pp. 41-42

Grammont, Joseph de:
Extrait d'un lettre de M. Grammont, missionnaire, ecite de Canton, le 21 mars 1789, Memoires concernant les Chinois 15, pp. 394-398

Grousset, René:
L' Empire des steppes, Paris, 1952 (excerpt)

MacGowan, D. J.:
Chinese Bibliography, Journal of the Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society, NCBRAS North China Branch, June 1858, p. 173

Fürstenberg, Hans:
Kaiser Kien-Lung´s Französisches Kupferstichwerk, Philobiblon 1931, pp. 371-376

Gaspardone, Émile:
Les victoires d'Annam aux gravures de K'ien Long, Sinologica 1956, pp. 1-12

Haenisch, Erich:
Bruchstücke aus der Geschichte Chinas unter der Gegenwärtigen Dynastie: I. Die Eroberung von Tibet, aus dem "Feldzug gegen die Dsungaren" auszugsweise übersetzt, T'oung Pao 1911, pp. 197-235 + pp. 375-424
Der chinesische Feldzug in Ili im Jahre 1755, Ostasiatische 1918, pp. 57-86
Das Goldstromland, Sothern Tibet - Sven Hedin 1922, pp. 69-130
Tschai Ta-ki: Der Held von Tschu-lo, Geschichtliche Würdigung eines chinesischen Rotlackbildes, Ostasiatische Zeitschrift 1922, pp. 177-184
Die viersprachige Gründungsinschrift des Klosters Pi-yün-sze bei Peking, Ostasiatische Zeitschrift 1924, pp. 1-18
Die Eroberung des Goldstromlandes in Ost-Tibet
, AsiaMajor 1935, pp. 262-313
Zwei kaiserliche Erlasse vom Ausgange der Regierung Kienlung, die Gorkha betreffend, HJAS 1938 (3), pp. 17-38
Steuergerechtsame der chinesischen Klöster unter der Mongolenherrschaft, Berichte über ... 1940, pp. 1-74
Ein Mandschu-mongolisches Diplom für einen lamaistischen Würdenträger, MS 1948 (13), pp. 317-330
Die viersprachige Gründungsinschrift des Tempels An-yüan-miao in Jehol vom Jahre 1765, Abhandlungen der ... 1950, pp. 1155-1174
Zwei viersprachige Inschriften zum Dsungarenkrieg aus den Jahren 1755 und 1758, Miscellanea ... 1950, pp. 224-247
Kaiserliches Vorwort zum Aktenwerk über den Krieg gegen G'aldan aus dem Mandschu übersetzt, ZDMG 1957 (107), pp. 402-411
Gestalten aus der Zeit der chinesischen Hegemoniekämpfe, Abhandlungen ... 1962, pp. 1-52

Hayit, Baymirza:
Turkestan zwischen Russland und China, Amsterdam, 1971

Heissig, Walther:
Ein mongolisches Textfragment über den Ölötenfürsten Galdan, Sinologische Arbeiten 1944, pp. 92-160 (+ Ergänzungen)

Howorth, Henry Hoyle:
History of the Mongols, London 1876 (excerpt)

Hummel, Arthur:
Eminent Chinese of the Ch´ing Period, 1943

Hymans, Henri:
Une Phase de l´Histoire de l´Art en Chine, Bulletin de Académie Royale d'Archéologie de Belgique, 1898, pp. 55-72

Imbault-Huart, Camille:
Histoire de la conquête de la Birmanie par les Chinois, Journal Asiatique 1878, pp. 135-178
Histoire de la conquête du Nepal par les Chinois, Journal Asiatique 1878, pp. 348-377
Recueil de documents sur l'Asie centrale, Paris 1881
Recit officiel de la Conquete du Turkistand par les Chinois (1759-1760), Bulletin de géographie historique et descriptive / Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques 1895, pp. 87-119

Ka Bo Tsang (曾嘉宝):
Portraits of Meritorious Officials: Eight Examples from the First Set Commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, Arts Asiatiques 1992, pp. 69-88
Ji fenggong, shu weiji: Qing Gaozong shiquan wugong de tuxiang jilu - gongchenxiang yu zhantu [Victories commemorated: Pictorial records of the Ten Perfect Military Achievements of the Qianlong Emperor: Portraits of meritorious officers and battle paintings], Gugong wenwu yuekan 1990 (no. 93), pp. 38-65
"Pingding Jinchuan qian wushi gongchenxiang" juan canben [The fragment of the handscroll "The First Series of Fifty Portraits of Meritorious Officers of the Jinchuan Campaign"], WenWu 1993, pp. 54-56

Kasakevich, V. M.:
Sources to the history of the Chinese military expeditions into Mongolia, MS 1943, pp. 328-335

Kraft, Eva:
Zum Dsungarenkrieg im 18. Jahrhundert, 1953 (Excerpt)

Krueger, John:
The Ch'ien-lung Inscriptions of 1755 and 1758 in Oirat-Mongolian, Central Asiatic Journal 1972, pp. 59–69.

Kuropatkin, A. N.:
Kashgaria, Calkutta 1882 (excerpt)

LAM, Truong-Buu:
Intervention versus Tribute in Sino-Vietnamese Relations 1788 - 1790, in John K. Fairbank, The Chinese World Order, Cambridge 1968, pp. 165-179

Laufer, Berthold:
Christian Art in China, Ostasiatische Studien 1910, pp. 100-118
Sonderdruck (Special Print), same as above

Ledderose, Lothar:
Machang durchbricht die feindlichen Linien, Wissenschaftskolleg 1984, pp. 181-193
Chinese Influence on European Art, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, China and Europe 1991, pp. 226-227
Machang durchbricht die feindlichen Linien u.a., Orchideen und Felsen, 1998, pp. 342-256

Leverenz:
From Painting to Print, The Battle of Qurman from 1760, Orientations, May 2010, pp. 48-53 (academia.edu download).
On Three Different Sets of East Turkestan Paintings, Orientations, November 2011, pp. 96-103 (academia.edu download).
Drawings, Proofs and Prints from the Qianlong Emperor's East Turkestan Copperplate Engravings, Arts Asiatiques, 2013, pp. 39-60 (academia.edu download).
Vues d’optique with Chinese Subjects, Print Quarterly, 2014, pp. 20-44 (academia.edu download).
A Third Fragment of The Battle of Qurman, Orientations, May 2015, pp. 76-80 (academia.edu download).
Review: Two New Publications on Qianlong's Officer Paintings, Orientations, May 2016, pp. 97-98 (academia.edu download).

Liu, Shi-yee:
Containing the West in the Manchu Realm? Emperor Qianlong's Deer Antler Scrolls, Orientations, September 2015, p. 58-65 (academia.edu download)
大都會館藏《石渠》著錄書畫概述和個案:乾隆《鹿角圖》兼論《戰圖》版畫 (Overview of the Metropolitan Museum collection recorded in the Shiqu baoji with case studies of Qianlong's Deer Antlers scrolls and campaign pictures), (academia.edu download)

Loehr, George Robert:
Giuseppe Castiglione (1688-1766), pittore di corte di Ch'ien-Lung, imperatore della Cina, Roma 1940, pp. 37-68
Castiglione, Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, 1979, pp. 92-94

Loehr, Max:
Engravings of Ch´ien-Lung´s Formosa Campaign, Bulletin of the University of Michigan Museum of Art 1954, pp. 12-15

Luce, Gordon H:
Chinese invasions of Burma in the 18th century, Journal of Burma Research Society (JBRS) 1925, pp. 115-128

Ma, Ya-chen 马雅贞:
War and empire: images of battle during the Qianlong reign, in: Qing Encounters, pp. 158-172
Commemorative images of war: the cultural construction of the Qing martial prowess 刻画战勋清朝帝国武功的文化建构, 2016

Meiners, Christoph:
Abhandlungen Sinesischer Jesuiten, 1778, pp. 665-688

Mercure de France, 3 Septembre 1785, p. 45 (Advertising the Helmans prints)

Michaud, Louis-Gabriel:
Biographie Universelle, 1813, pp. 161-163 (COCHIN)

Mish, John L.:
The Return of the Turgut, Journal of Asian History 1970, pp. 80-82

Monval, Jean:
Les Conquêtes de la Chine, Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 1905, pp. 147-160

Moss, Paul:
The Fight For Shih-Feng Pao (1784), The British Antique Dealers Association Handbook 1987, pp. 24-29

F. W. K. Müller:
Einige neue Erwerbungen der indischen und chinesischen Abteilungen des kgl. Museums f. Vökerkunde Berlin, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie XXXV, 1903, pp. 483-484

Nie Chongzheng (聂崇正):
谈紫光阁功臣像, Zijincheng 紫禁城 2008-01, pp. 138-169
Talking about the meritorious officers paintings of Ziguang Ge (Hall of Purple Glory)
《乾隆平定准部回部战图》 和清代的铜版画, WenWu 文物 1980-04-30, pp. 61-64
Qianlong´s East-Turkestan Battlepaintings and Copperengravings
谈清代 《紫光阁功臣像》, WenWu 文物 1990-01-31, pp. 65-69
Talking about Qing Dynasty meritorious officers paintings of Ziguang Ge
西柏林观清宫廷画记, Palace Museum Journal 故宫博物院院刊 1986-10-01, pp. 59-64
Watching Court Painting of Qing Dynasty in West Berlin
纽约观紫光阁功臣像记, Collector 收藏家 2002-02-15, pp. 24-26
Watching the meritorious officers paintings of Ziguang Ge in New York
紫光阁功臣中的《阿桂像》轴, Zhongguo lishi wenwu 中国历史文物 2008-12-15, pp. 25-27
The Portrait of the Meritorious Officer A-Gui in the Ziguangge (Hall of Purple Glory)
清朝宫廷铜版画《乾隆平定准部回部战图》, Palace Museum Publ. 故宫博物院院刊 1989-12-31
Qing court copper engravings of «Qianlong´s East-Turkestan Battle Paintings»
观徐扬画平定西域献俘礼图卷, Collector 收藏家 2009-03-01
Appreciation of Xu Yang´s Picture of Pacifying Xiyu and Offering Captive Ritual (pingdingxiyuxianfulitu)
郎世宁和他的历史画、油画作品, Palace Museum Publ. 故宫博物院院刊 1979-10-01
Castigliones historical oil paintings
郎世宁和他的历史画、油画作品, Fine Arts 美术研究 1995-02-15
The paintings of foreign painters at the Qing court
清代宫廷油画述略, Palace Museum Publ. 故宫博物院院刊 1995-12-30
A summary of the oil paintings at the Qing court
清宫外国画家谈, Fine Arts 美术 1985-05-31
About foreign painters at the Qing court
清平定两金川功臣像钩沉, Collector 收藏家 1995-08-06
Outstanding ministers during the pacification of Jinchuan
王致诚、艾启蒙和潘廷章的油画, Fine Arts 美术 1990-10-28
The oil paintings of Jean Denis Attiret, Ignaz Sichelbarth and Giuseppe Panzi
清宫画家郎世宁和他的绘画, Beijing University Publ. House 北京大学出版社 July 2008
Qing court painter Castiglione and his paintings

Pang, T.A. / Pchelin, N.G.:
Portraits of famous generals from the reign of Emperor Qianlong, from the collection of the State Hermitage, SPb, Russia, of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Spring-Summer 2011, pp. 262-278 (Russian), English translation
Portraits of Meritorious Officers from the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum: Restoration of the Scrolls and Revised Reading of the Texts, Written Monuments of the Orient, Vol. 13, No. 4 (27), Winter 2016, pp.74-90

Pelliot, Paul:
Review of Stephen W. Bushell: Chinese Art, Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 1905, pp. 211-217
Review of Franke / Laufer: Epigraphische Denkmäler aus China, Journal Asiatique 1914, pp. 177-191
Les Conquetes de I'Empereur de la Chine, T'oung Pao 1921, pp. 183-274
La peinture et la gravure européennes en Chine au temps de Mathieu Ricci, T'oung Pao 1921 (XX), pp. 1-18
Conquêtes de l'Empereur de la Chine, Byblis 1922, pp. 107-110
Review of Edward Strange Chinese Lacquer, T'oung Pao 1928, pp. 131-133
Review of Hans Fürstenberg: Kaiser Kien-lung´s französisches Kupferstichwerk, T'oung Pao 1932, pp. 125-127
Notes Critiques d'histoire Kalmouke, Oeuvres posthumes 1960

Perdue, Peter C.:
Military Mobilization in Seventeenth and Eighteenth- Century China, Russia, and Mongolia, Modern Asian Studies 1996, pp. 757-793
Comparing Empires: Manchu Colonialism + Boundaries, Maps, and Movement: Chinese, Russian, and Mongolian Empires in Early Modern Central Asia, The International History Review 1998, pp. 255-286
Fate and Fortune in Central Eurasian Warfare: Three Qing Emperors and Their Mongol Rivals, Warfare in Inner Asian History 500-1800, 2002, pp. 385-402 (excerpt)

Pfister, Louis:
Notices biographiques et bibliographiques sur les jesuites de l'ancienne mission de Chine 1552-1773, pp. 635-639 (CASTIGLIONE), p. 787-792 (ATTIRET)

Picard, René:
Les peintres jésuites à la cour de Chine, Grenoble 1973, pp. 80-82

Pirazzoli-T'Serstevens, Michèle:
Gravures des conquêtes de l'empereur de chine k'ien-long au musée guimet, 1969

Rawson, Jessica:
The British Museum book of Chinese Art, 1993, pp. 195/195 and pp. 282/183

Reed, Marcia:
Imperial impressions: the Qianlong emperor's print suites, in: Qing Encounters, pp.124-139

Reichwein, Adolf:
China und Europa, geistige und künstlerische Beziehungen im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin 1923, pp.62-63

Ritter, Carl: Die Erdkunde im Verhältniß zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen
§ 57 Anm. a: Kaiser Kangxis Heeresdurchzug durch die Sandwüste 1696
§ 5 Erl. 6: Rebellion der Khodjas gegen die chinesischen Usurpationen
§ 71 Anm. 2: Gebirgspassage des Chinesen Heeres beim Überfall in Nepal 1792
§ 33 Erl. 6: Völker- und Herrscher-Wechsel im alten Dsungaren-Lande ... bis 1826

Schlombs, Adele:
Das Bildnis des Generals Mingliang: Ein chinesisches Heldenportrait, Kölner Museums Bulletin 1995, pp. 30-36
Meisterwerke aus China, Korea und Japan, Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst Köln, 1995, pp. 102-105

Shaw, Robert B:
The History of the Khojas of Eastern Turkestan, Supplement to the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengale, 1897, pp. i-vi, 1-67

Stary, Giovanni:
Mandschurische Miszellen, Asiatische Forschungen 1982, pp. 76-86
Tre 'Ritratti con Elogio' come Esempi della Tecnica Poetica Mancese, Annali della Facoltà di Lingue e Letterature Straniere di Ca' Foscari 1982, pp. 97-105
The "Machu Cannons" Cast by Ferdinand Verbiest and the Hitherto Unknown Title of his Instructions + Shu Liguang: Ferdinand Verbiest and the Casting of Cannons in the Qing Dynasty, Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688) Jesuit Missionary, Scientist, Engineer and Diplomat, 1994

Strange, Edward:
Chinese Lacquer, 1926, pp. 47-48

Sullivan, Michael:
The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art, University of California Press, 1989, pp. 67-80

Szrajber, Tanya:
The Victories of the Emperor Qianlong, Print Quarterly 2006, pp. 28-46

Tafel, Albert:
Meine Tibetreise, XV. Durchs Goldflußland, 1914

Takata Tokio:
Qianlong Emperor's Copperplate Engravings of the "Conquest of Western Regions", Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, No. 70, pp. 111-129 (2012).

Têng, Ssu-yü:
The Nien Army and Their Guerrilla Warfare 1851-1868, 1961 (excerpt)

Thiele, Peter:
Darstellung von Kampfszenen des 18. Jahrhunderts in Chinas Randgebieten am Beispiel Taiwans, Baessler Archiv 1978, pp. 281-298

Veit, Veronika:
Die in Deutschland befindlichen Portraits der von Ch´ienlung 1754-1755 unterworfenen Ölotenfürsten, Zentralasiatische Studien 1970, pp. 199-237
Neue weitere in Deutschland befindliche Portraits verdienter Offiziere der Ch´ienlung Zeit, Zentralasiatische Studien 1978, pp. 543-591

Siu, Victoria:
Castiglione and the Yuanming Yuan Collections, Orientations 1988, pp. 72-79

Vissiere, M.A.:
Un Manuscrit Poetique de l´Empereur K´ien-Long, Bulletin de ... 1911, pp. 105-113

Vollmer, John E.:
Costume as Symbol in Traditional China, Arts of Asia 1978, Vol. 8, pp. 42-53

Waldersee, Alfred Graf von:
Die Eroberung und Plünderung Pekings im August 1900, Preußische Jahrbücher 1923, pp. 283-293

Waley-Cohen, Joanna:
Exile in Mid-Qing China, 1991 (excerpt)
God and Guns in Eighteenth-Century China: Jesuit Missionaries and the Military Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor 1736-1796, Contact between Cultures Volume 4, 1992, pp. 94-99
China and Western Technology in the Late Eighteenth Century, American Historical Review 1993, pp. 1525-1544
Commemorating War in Eighteenth-Century China, Modern Asian Studies 1996, pp. 869-899
Religion, War, and Empire-Building in Eighteenth-Century China, The International History Review 1998, pp. 336-352
Military Ritual and the Qing Empire, Warfare in Inner Asian History 500-1800, 2002, pp. 403-438 (excerpt)
Changing Spaces of Empire in Eighteenth-Century Qing China, Political Frontiers..., 2003, pp. 324-350 (excerpt)
The Culture of War in China, 2006 (whole book)
On The Militarization of Culture in The Eighteenth-Century Qing Empire, Common Knowledge 2006, Vol 12, pp. 96-106

Walravens, Hartmut:
Europa und die Kaiser von China, Exhibition Berlin 1985, pp. 163-172
China Illustrata, 1987, whole Exhibition Catalogue
AltaicaBerolinensia, 1993, pp. 307-330
IFLANET speech 1996 (pdf)
Historical and Cultural Interaction, 1997, pp. 401-423
Baessler Archiv 2001, pp. 79-89
Die ehemalige Sammlung von Porträts verdienter Offiziere der Feldzüge des Qianlong-Kaisers (Catalogue of the former Berlin collection of meritorious officers of the Qing period, with Manchu & Chinese eulogies), Baessler-Archiv 2014, pp. 125-166
Die ehemalige Sammlung von Porträts verdienter Offiziere der Feldzüge des Qianlong-Kaisers, 2. Teil, Baessler-Archiv 2016, pp. 111-150

Wang, Ching-Ling 王靜靈:
»Machang durchbricht die feindlichen Linien«, Eine Neubewertung der Querrolle in der Sammlung der Museums für Asiatische Kunst, OZ Ostasiatische Zeitschrift 2016 (no. 31), pp.24–32
Portraits of Meritorious Officials, Aziatische Kunst, November 2016 (vol.46, no.3), pp.39-47
柏林收藏的紫光閣功臣像及其相關作品新論 (New Discoveries of the General Portraits and Related Works in the Berlin Collection), 故宮學術季刊 34:1 2016.09 [民105.09] 頁 153-214 (National Palace Museum Journal, Taiwan, Autumn 2016)

Weiers, Michael:
Zu den mongolischen und mandschurischen Akten und Schriftstücken des 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Archiv für Zentralasiatische Geschichtsforschung, 1983
Der erste Schriftwechsel zwischen Khalkha und Mandschuren und seine Überliefeerung, ZAS 1987, pp. 107-139
Zum Verhältnis des Ch’ing-Staats zur lamaistischen Kirche in der frühen Yungcheng Zeit, ZAS 1988, pp. 115-131

Yang, Boda:
Castiglione at the Qing Court, Orientations 1988, pp. 44-51

Zettl, Erich:
Ignaz Sichelbarth 1708-1780. Missionar, Maler und Mandarin am chinesischen Kaiserhof, 2011.

Zhang, Hongxing:
Studies in late Qing Dynasty battle paintings, Artibus Asiae 2000, pp. 265-296
流散在海内外的两组晚清宫廷战图考略 (same as above in Chinese)

Zoratto, Bruno:
Giuseppe Castiglione, pittore italiano alla corte imperiale cinese, Schena 1994



Literature in Japanese

Ishida Mikinosuke, Pari Kaicho Kenryu Nenkan Jun-kai Ryobu Heitei Tokusho-zu ni tsuite, Toyogaku-ho, 1919, pp. 396-448

Goto Sueo 1933, Shina Shiso no Furansu Seizen, Tokyo, 1933
Goto Sueo 1939, Shina Bunka to Shina-gaku no Kigen, Tokyo, 1939, p. 165

Toriyama Kiichi, Shin Koso Gyodai Heitei Iri Kaibu Zenzu, Shoko, p. 112

Fujita Shinya, Yan Xiangshi zo, Yamato Bunka, Nr. 89, March 1993, pp. 39-42



Indexes to Biographical Collections

Fang Chao-ying & Tu Lien-che, Index to 33 Ch'ing Biographic Collections (San shi san zhong Qing dai zhuan ji zong he yin de 三十三種清代傳記綜合引得). Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series No. 9

Hakki tsushi retsuden sakuin 八 旗 通 志 列 傳 索 引 Index to biographies in the Pa-ch'i tong-chih (Tokyo 1965)



Literature from this millennium (please purchase at the given location)

The Qianlong Emperor: Treasures from the Forbidden City, Exhibition Catalogue from the National Museum of Scotland 2002, Zhang Hongxing

Warfare in Inner Asian History 500-1800, 2002, Edited by Nicola di Cosmo

Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries and Human Geographies in Chinese History, 2003, Edited by Nicola di Cosmo

清代銅版戰功圖全編 Complete Collection with Pictures of Qing Copper Prints of Victorious Battles, Beijing, Xuefan chubanshe, 2003

Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Ausstellungskatalog, Asiatisches Museum Berlin, Herbert Butz, 2003

Butz, Herbert: Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, 2003

Schätze der Himmelssöhne, Die kaiserliche Sammlung aus dem Nationalen Palastmuseum, p. 356+357, Ausstellungskatalog Altes Museum, Berlin, 2003

The Manchu Way, 2005, Elliott, Mark C.

China Marches West, 2005, Perdue, Peter C.

China on Paper, p. 96-102, 2005; Marcia Reed / Paola Dematte

The Empire And the Khanate: A Political History of Qing Relations With Khoqand C. 1760-1860, 2005, Laura Newby

The Culture of War in China: Imperial Touring and the Construction of Qing Rule (1680-1785), 2006, Joanna Waley-Cohen

Imperial Illusions: Crossing Pictorial Boundaries in the Qing Palaces, 2014, Kristina Kleutghen

Qing Encounters: Artistic Exchanges between China and the West, 2015, edited Petra ten-Doesschate Chu and Ning Ding

Die Heldengalerie des Qianlong-Kaisers, 2015, Annette Bügener





"He loaded his cannon on camels. People who heard their thunderous roar near and far submitted"

China Marches West
Peter C. Perdue
p. 305