Start Arigun Dou Bin Xiangshi? Fude? Namjal? Zhanyinbao
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About us


Historical Background


List of Officers


Fragment right: Officer Machang


Fragment left: Officer Doubin a.o.


Overview Officers on the Photo


Literature



Lists on this website (for download as a Word document)


Total List of Battle Paintings, August 2009 (see Historical Background)
Total List of Officers, August 2009 (see List of Officers)



Auctions + Total Result Lists (for download as .pdf)

Sotheby's NY - June 1986 - Zhanyinbao 1b14 (“Hu Er Cha Ba”) + Orientations January 1987, p. 71
Sotheby's NY - April 1987 - Fuheng 1a1 ("Fu Heng")
Sotheby's NY - June 1992 - 17smallOfficers
Who knows where these 17 portraits are? Unfortunately they seem to be lost.
Sotheby's NY - Dec 1992 - Wufu 1b12 (“Wu Fu”)
Sotheby's NY - June 1993 - Tanibu 1b41 (“Te Gu Si Ba”)
Sotheby's Amsterdam - October 1994 - No. 11 - E-hui Taiwan ("Abatolu")
Christie´s NY - 1996 - Uksiltu - 1b29 (“Keshiki Batu Luwuke Shier”)

All other auctions are available online on the auction houses websites


E.J.Brill: catalogue 544, 1985 (18 oil portraits offered)


Presumably fake portraits were sold at:
- Zhonggou Jiade (China Guardian) Beijing: Zhongguo gudai huhua
  (Chinese Classical Paintings and Calligraphy), 21 April 1999,
  lot 811: Portraits of Meritorious Officers (pdf)
- Artron Auction, 2 January 2009, lot 0136 (pdf)
- Clars Auction Gallery, Oakland, CA: 11 January 2009, lot 6309 (pdf)
- Bonhams SF, 28 July 2009 lot 1299 and 9 November 2010 lot 8363 (pdf)
- Skinner Auctions, Boston, MA: Asian Works of Art Session I, 20 April 2012,
  lot 189 (pdf)
- Michaans Auctions, Alameda, California, 8 May 2012, lot 575 (pdf)
- Slawinski Auction Company, Scotts Valley, California: Chinese and Japanese,
  27 May 2012, lot 8531 (pdf)
- RB Gallery (liveauctioneers), 21 Sept. 2014, lot 3438 (pdf, jpg1, jpg2, jpg3, jpg4, jpg5, jpg6)
- Massol, Paris, 18 December 2015, lot 28 (pdf)
- Eden, USA, 27 January 2018, lot 213 (pdf). Earlier auctioned at 11 November 2016, lot 119 (pdf, jpg1, jpg2, jpg3, jpg4, jpg5, jpg6, jpg7, jpg8, jpg9, jpg10, jpg11, jpg12, jpg13, jpg14, jpg15, jpg16, jpg17, jpg18, jpg19, jpg20, jpg21, jpg22, jpg23)
- Oriental Art Auction, Hattem, Netherlands, 23 March 2019, lot 61 (pdf, jpg)
- Zedd's Art Gallery, Henderson, NV, USA, 21 November 2020, lot 16 (pdf)
- Millea Bros., 9 December 2020, lot 1139 (pdf, jpg1, jpg2, jpg3, jpg4, jpg5)
- AZP Art Gallery, 12 March 2022, lot 196 (pdf, jpg1, jpg2, jpg3, jpg4)
- H&H Brother Auction House, 9 April 2022, Singapore, lot 10 (pdf)
- Azaya Art Gallery, 30 August 2022, lot 0350 (pdf)
- Delon Hoebanx, Paris, 21 March 2024, lot 13 (pdf)


Literature (for download as .pdf)

Anonyme: Précis historique de la guerre, Paris 1791. This copy is in the Museo Salvatore Ferragamo, Florence. The BnF has a facsimile.

Jean-Joseph-Marie Amiot:
Letter of 17 October 1754, see Deborah Sommer below
Letter of 1 March 1769, Journal des Savants, June 1771, pp. 406-420
Monument de la Conquête des Eleuths, Memoirs concernant les Chinois 1, 1776, pp. 325-404
Monument de la Transmigration des Tourgouths, Memoirs concernant les Chinois 1, 1776, p. 405-418 + p. 419-431
Lettre du P. Amiot, Missionnaire de la Chine, sur la Réduction des Miao-tsée, en 1775, and others; Memoirs concernant les Chinois 3, 1778, pp. 387-431
Autre relations de la conquête du pays de Miao-tsée, Memoirs concernant les Chinois 3, 1778, pp. 412-422
Ueber die Unterjochung der Eleuthen oder der Kalmucken (Erläuterungen eines steinernen Denkmals, auf welchem die Eroberung des Königreichs der Eleuthen in sinesischen Versen, die der Kaiser Qianlong selber gefertigt hat, beschrieben steht), Abhandlungen Sinesischer Jesuiten, 1778, pp. 539-664
Hymne Tartare Mantchou, Chanté à l'occasion de la Conquête du Kin-Tchouen, Paris 1792.
Le Frère Attiret au service de K'ien-long (1739-1768), Bulletin de l'Université l'Aurore 1943, pp. 435-474 (réédite par Henry Bernard)

Antonucci, Davor:
Some Notes from Western Sources on Galdan, Études Orientales, 25/1 (2008), pp. 29-51
In the Service of the Emperor: Félix da Rocha S.J. (1731-1781) and Qianlong’s ‘Ten Great Campaigns’, Orientis Aura: Macau Perspectives in Religious Studies 2018, pp. 61-79

Art Collection and Appreciation 2021:
画与雕漆挂屏, 平定台湾得胜图, [Painting and lacquer hanging screen, Pacifying Taiwan battle paintings]

Atwood, Christopher P:
Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, 2004

Backhouse, Edmund / Bland, John O. P.:
Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking, three prints
Tseu-Hi Impératrice douairière (La Chine de 1833 à 1909), 1912
(en, de)

Bawden, Charles R.:
The Mongol rebellion of 1756-1757, Journal of Asian History 1968, pp. 1-31

Bergmann, Benjamin:
Nomadische Streifereien unter den Kalmüken in den Jahren 1802 und 1803, Geschichte der Kalmükenflucht von der Wolga, Riga 1804

Berliner, Nancy:
The emperor looks west, The Magazine Antiques, March 2007, pp. 89-94

Bernard-Maître, Henri:
Catalogue des Objets envoyés de Chine par les Missionnaires (1765- 1786), (en collaboration avec J. Dehergne), BUA 9 (1948), 119-206
Deux Chinois du XVIIIe siècle à l'école des Physiocrates Français, Bulletin de l'Université l'Aurore 1949, pp. 151-197
Henri Bernard-Maître: choix d'articles et de livres écrits par lui sur l'Extrême-Orient, (par J. Dehergne), Bulletin de l'Ecolefrançaise d'Extrême-Orient, Tome 63, 1976. pp. 467-481

Beurdeley, Cécile and Michel:
Giuseppe Castiglione, A Jesuit Painter at the Court of the Chinese Emporers, London 1972, p. 79-88
Castiglione, peintre Jésuite a la cour de Chine, Paris 1971 (same a above)
Peintres Jésuites en Chine au 18e siècle, Paris 1997

van den Brandt:
Un manuscript inédit de »Conquetes de K´ien-Long«, Monumenta Serica 1939, pp. 85-115

Bormanshinov, Arash:
Some Recent Develompemnts in Kalmyk and Oirat Studies, Zentralasiatische Studien 1988, pp. 152-162

Boulnois, Lucette:
Chinese maps and prints on the Tibet-Gorkha war of 1788-92, Kailash 1989, pp. 85-112

Bouyer, Raymond:
Les revues: Les Conquetes de I'Empereur de la Chine par Paul Pelliot, La Revue de l'Art Ancien et Moderne, 41.1922, p. 96

British Museum Quarterly, Volume 3, 1928-1929, pp. 80-81

Brophy, David:
The Kings of Xinjiang: Muslim Elites and the Qing Empire, Etudes Orientales 25 (2008), pp. 69-90
/Takahiro Onuma: The Origins of Qing Xinjiang: A Set of Historical Sources on Turfan, Tokyo 2016

Brown, Claudia:
Transcending Turmoil: Painting at the Close of China's Empire, 1796-1911, Orientations 1993, pp. 66-71

Bügener, Annette:
The Qianlong Emperor and His Bannermen, 2005
Wer ist der Offizier?, Hildesheimer Kalender 2005, pp. 161-167
Die Heldengalerie des Qianlong-Kaisers, 2015

Bushell, Stephen W.:
Chinese Art, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1909

Cams, Mario:
The China Maps of Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’ Anville: Origins and Supporting Networks, Imago Mundi 2013
Not Just a Jesuit Atlas of China: Qing Imperial Cartography and Its European Connections, Imago Mundi 2017
Companions in Geography: East-West Collaboration in the Mapping of Qing China (c.1685-1735), 2017. Here: Conclusion, pp. 176-219

Charleux, Isabelle:
Kangxi/Engke Amuyulang, un empereur mongol? Sur quelques légendes mongoles et chinoises, Études mongoles et sibériennes, centrasiatiques et tibétaines 42 (2011)
From North India to Buryatia The ‘Sandalwood Buddha’ from the Mongols’ perspective

Chaudon, L. M. (Louis Mayeul):
Dictionnaire universel, 1810, p. 316 (HELMAN)

Chen, Shou-yi:
Copper Engravings of the Chien Lung Conquests, Honolulu Academy of Arts Annual Bulletin 1939
Les Conquêtes de l'Empereur de la Chine, Honolulu Academy of Arts Annual Bulletin 1940, pp. 3-19

Chen, Yun-ru:
Producing a Realm of Truth: Reexamining the Art-Historical Significance of the Qing Court Version of Up the River During Qingming at the Yongzheng Painting Academy, The National Palace Museum Research Quarterly 2010 (E, D)
The Transformation of Giuseppe Castiglione’s Style and Operations of the Painting Academy in the Yongzheng Reign, 2015 (E, D)

Cimeddorji, Jaqa:
Die Briefe des K`ang-Hsi-Kaisers aus den Jahren 1696-97 an den Kronprinzen Yin-Ch`eng aus mandschurischen Geheimdokumenten: ein Beitrag zum ersten Dsungarenkrieg der Ch`ing 1690-1697, Asiatische Forschungen; Bd. 113, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1991 (excerpt)
Review by Michael Underdown: Die Briefe des K`ang-Hsi-Kaisers ..., Monumenta Serica, Vol. 44 (1996), pp. 528-530

Cordier, Henry:
Les marchands hanistes de Canton, T'oung Pao 1902, pp. 303-306
Bibliotheca Sinica, Volume 1 1904, pp. 631-642
La Chine en France au 18e siecle, Paris 1910, pp. 55-69
Les conquêtes de l'empereur de la Chine, Mémoires concernant l'Asie Orientale, Inde, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient 1913, pp. 1-18
Histoire générale de la Chine et de ses relations avec les pays étrangers, 1920 (III), pp. 346-350
Les correspondants de Bertin: Secrétaire d'État au XVIII siècle in T'oung Pao:
I. Nicolas Raux C.M., TP 1913 XIV, pp. 227-257
II. Jean-Baptist Grammont S.J., TP 1913 XIV, pp. 465-472
III. Chrétien De Guignes, TP 1913 XIV, pp. 497-536
IV. Pierre Poivre, TP 1914 XV, pp. 307-338, (article, fr, en)
V. James Hutton, TP 1915 XVI, pp. 27-60
VI. Antoine Court de Gébelin, TP 1915 XVI, pp. 229-235
VII. Michel Benoist, TP 1917 XVIII, pp. 295–349, here: pp. 331-349 (fr, en)
VIII. François Bourgeois S.J., TP 1917 XVIII, pp. 350-379
IX. (fin), TP 1922 XXI, pp. 394-398
(Lettre de 12 octobre 1766, TP 1920 XVIII, pp. 332-339)

Courant, Maurice:
L'Asie Centrale aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: Empire Kalmouk ou Empire Mantchou?, Lyon 1912

Crossley, Pamela Kyle:
Pluralité impériale et identités subjectives dans la Chine des Qing, Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 2008/3, pp. 597-621

di Cosmo, Nicola:
The Empire and the Khanate, 2005 (excerpt)
The Qing and Inner Asia: "1636-1800", 2012

Dehergne, Joseph:
Voyageurs chinois venus à Paris au temps de la marine à voiles et l’influence de la Chine sur la littérature française du XVIIIe siècle, Monumenta Serica, vol. 23, 1964, p. 372-397
XIII. Henri Bernard-Maître: choix d'articles et de livres écrits par lui sur l'Extrême-Orient, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, Tome 63, 1976. pp. 467-481
Une grande collection: Mémoires concernant les Chinois (1776-1814), Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, Tome 72, 1983. pp. 267-298

Dekker, Peter:
Rediscovering Manchu Archery, 2008
“Practically Invulnerable”: Chinese Paper Armor, 2009
Manchu Archery Equipment, 2009
Jiangnan provincial examination results, 2010
Using the Manchu thumb ring, 2011
Portrait of Youtun testing an arrow, 2012
The Manchu Tunken target, 2012
Technique, 2012
Photograps of Manch and Chinese archers, 2012
Rise of the Manchus, 2012
Manchu arrows, 2012
The Manchu bow, 2012
Bow evolution, 2012
Bow-making, 2012
Bow care by Lukas Novotny, 2012
Whistling arrows and whistle arrows, 2013
Manchu - English archery terms, 2013
Photographs of republican period archery, 2013
Photographs of Mongolian archers, 2013
Photographs of bow and arrow making shop, 1935, 2013
Historical draw weights of Qing bows, 2014
Bow cases and quivers of the Qing, 2014
Making of a mosaic patterned Manchu bow, 2014
Qing dynasty "baogong" or "precious bow", 2014
Korean views on Manchu archery, 2014
Footage of Mongolian archers, 2014
Photographs of Tibetan archers, 2014
Starting off with Manchu archery, 2014
Maker's marks on Qing bows, 2014
Young-Jip Bows and Arrows Museum, 2014
Bow and arrow prices in 1802, 2014
Manchu bow glossary, 2014
The last Manchu archer (Part 1), 2015
Manchu war arrows, 2015
The last Manchu archer (Part 2), 2015
DEBTELIN, Issue 02, Febuary 2018, Manchu Archery, 2018

Dematté, Paola:
A Confucian Education for Europeans, The Art Bulletin, Volume 98, 2016 - Issue 1, pp. 43-71

Di, Shu:
The formation of the battle genre in the Chinese engraving of the XVIII century: a series of etchings "Pacification of the Western Territory", PhD Thesis 2019 (in russian) (E, D)

东方杂志 Dongfang Zazhi: 明清之際中國美術所受西洋之影響 On the European Influence on Chinese Art during the Ming and Qing Dynasty, January 1930

Eberspächer, Cord:
Chinas imperiale Kriege: Die militärische Expansion Chinas während der Qing-Dynastie 1644-1911, in: Imperialkriege Von 1500 Bis Heute, 2011
Die Plünderung des kaiserlichen Palastes, Chinesische Dinge in deutschen Museen und Sammlungen und ihre Herkunft, in: Andratschke / Jachens (Hrsg.), Provenienzforschung zu Sammlungsgut aus kolonialen Kontexten (China) in vier ostfriesischen Museen und Kultureinrichtungen, Heidelberg: arthistoricum.net 2023, S.52-76

Enoki, Kazuo:
Researches in Chinese Turkestan during the Ch'ien-lung period, with special reference to the Hsi-yu-tung-wen-chih, Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library) 14, 1955, pp. 1-46
Hsi-Yü T'ung-wen-chih + Introduction, Toyo Bunko Publications 16, 1964,

Eichhorn, W.:
Kolonialkämpfe der Chinesen in Turkestan während der Periode Ch´ien-lung, Zeitschrift der Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 1942, pp. 261-325

Entenmann, Robert:
Andreas Ly on the First Jinchuan War in Western Sichuan 1747-1749, Sino-Western Cultural Relations Journal 1997, pp. 6-21
Review - China's Last Imperial Frontier and The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet, Asian Highlands Perspectives Journal 21 (2019), pp. 437-442

Erni, Christian:
Tribes, States and Colonialism in Asia, Discussion Paper 2014

Erschbamer, Marlene:
Tibetan Troops Fighting the “Enemy of Buddhist Doctrine” (bstandgra): The Invasions of the Gorkhas as Witnessed by Two Tibetan Masters of the Barawa (’Ba’ ra ba) Tradition, Cahiers d'Extrême-Asie, vol. 27, 2018. Le bouddhisme et l'armée au Tibet pendant la période du Ganden Phodrang (1642-1959) / Buddhism and the Millitary in Tibet during the Ganden Phodrang Period (1642-1959) pp. 121-137

Fang, Chaoying:
A Technique for Estimating the Numerical Strength of the Early Manchu Military Forces, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 1950, pp. 192-215

Franke / Laufer:
Epigraphische Denkmäler aus China, 1914, plates 31-70

Fuchs, Walter:
Die Schlachtenbilder aus Turkestan von 1765 als historische Quelle, Monumenta Serica 1939, pp. 116-124
Die Entwürfe der Schlachtenkupfer der Kienlung- und Taokuang-Zeit, Monumenta Serica 1944, pp. 101-122
Galdanica. Miszellen zum Kriege Kanghsi's gegen Galdan, Monumenta Serica 1944, pp. 174-198
Der Kupferdruck in China vom 10. bis 19. Jahrhundert, Gutenberg Jahrbuch 1950
New Material on Chinese Battle Paintings of the Eighteenth Century, Japanese National Commission for Unesco, Symposium Papers, Tokyo 1959, pp. 41-42
‘Te-sheng t’u [Schlachtenbilder]’, Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde 14, 2010, pp. 237-261

Fürstenberg, Hans:
Kaiser Kien-Lung´s Französisches Kupferstichwerk, Philobiblon 1931, pp. 371-376

Gaspardone, Émile:
Les victoires d'Annam aux gravures de K'ien Long, Sinologica 1956, pp. 1-12

Grammont, Joseph de:
Extrait d'un lettre de M. Grammont, missionnaire, ecite de Canton, le 21 mars 1789, Memoires concernant les Chinois 15, pp. 394-398

Gregory, Eugene John:
Desertion and the Militarization of Qing Legal Culture, Georgetown University 2015

Grousset, René:
L' Empire des steppes, Paris, 1952 (excerpt)

Gros, Stéphane:
Chronology of Major Events With Particular Attention to the Sino-Tibetan Borderlands, Amsterdam University Press 2019

González Linaje, María Teresa:
Un modelo de hibridación cultural para el siglo XVIII. Estudio de Suite des seize estampes représentant les conquêtes de l’Empereur de la Chine, 2017

MacGowan, D. J.:
Chinese Bibliography, Journal of the Shanghai Literary and Scientific Society, NCBRAS North China Branch, June 1858, p. 173

Guo, Wu:
Accommodation and Conflict: The Incorporation of Miao Territory and Construction of Cultural Difference during the High Qing Era, Front. Hist. China 2012, 7(2), p. 1-20

Haenisch, Erich:
Bruchstücke aus der Geschichte Chinas unter der Gegenwärtigen Dynastie: I. Die Eroberung von Tibet, aus dem "Feldzug gegen die Dsungaren" auszugsweise übersetzt, T'oung Pao 1911, pp. 197-235 + pp. 375-424
Der chinesische Feldzug in Ili im Jahre 1755, Ostasiatische 1918, pp. 57-86
Das Goldstromland, Sothern Tibet - Sven Hedin 1922, pp. 69-130
Tschai Ta-ki: Der Held von Tschu-lo, Geschichtliche Würdigung eines chinesischen Rotlackbildes, Ostasiatische Zeitschrift 1922, pp. 177-184
Die viersprachige Gründungsinschrift des Klosters Pi-yün-sze bei Peking, Ostasiatische Zeitschrift 1924, pp. 1-18
Die Eroberung des Goldstromlandes in Ost-Tibet
, AsiaMajor 1935, pp. 262-313
Zwei kaiserliche Erlasse vom Ausgange der Regierung Kienlung, die Gorkha betreffend, HJAS 1938 (3), pp. 17-38
Steuergerechtsame der chinesischen Klöster unter der Mongolenherrschaft, Berichte über ... 1940, pp. 1-74
Ein Mandschu-mongolisches Diplom für einen lamaistischen Würdenträger, MS 1948 (13), pp. 317-330
Die viersprachige Gründungsinschrift des Tempels An-yüan-miao in Jehol vom Jahre 1765, Abhandlungen der ... 1950, pp. 1155-1174
Zwei viersprachige Inschriften zum Dsungarenkrieg aus den Jahren 1755 und 1758, Miscellanea ... 1950, pp. 224-247
Kaiserliches Vorwort zum Aktenwerk über den Krieg gegen G'aldan aus dem Mandschu übersetzt, ZDMG 1957 (107), pp. 402-411
1958
Sinomongolische Glossare I, Das Hua-I ih-yü by Erich Haenisch, Review by: Nicholas Poppe, Vol. 11, No. 1/2 (Dec. 31, 1958), p. 266
Dokumente aus dem Jahre 1788 zur Vorgeschichte des Gorkha-Krieges, Bayer. Akad. d. Wiss., philosoph.-histor. Klasse. Abhandlungen, Neue Folge Heft 49, München 1959
Gestalten aus der Zeit der chinesischen Hegemoniekämpfe, Abhandlungen ... 1962, pp. 1-52

Hayit, Baymirza:
Turkestan zwischen Russland und China, Amsterdam, 1971

Heissig, Walther:
Ein mongolisches Textfragment über den Ölötenfürsten Galdan, Sinologische Arbeiten 1944, pp. 92-160 (+ Ergänzungen)
Die Mongolen, 1989, pp. 81-85

Howald, Christine:
The Power of Provenance. Marketing and Pricing of Chinese Looted Art on the European Market (1860-1862), 2018, Acquiring Cultures. Histories of World Art on Western Markets

Howorth, Henry Hoyle:
History of the Mongols, London 1876 (excerpt)

Hummel, Arthur:
Eminent Chinese of the Ch´ing Period, 1943

Huang, Hua:
Cityscape, Urban Nobodies and War: Modern Transformation of Nianhua in Suzhou-Shanghai, PhD Thesis 2015

Hymans, Henri:
Une Phase de l´Histoire de l´Art en Chine, Bulletin de Académie Royale d'Archéologie de Belgique, 1898, pp. 55-72

Imbault-Huart, Camille:
Histoire de la conquête de la Birmanie par les Chinois, Journal Asiatique 1878, pp. 135-178
Histoire de la conquête du Nepal par les Chinois, Journal Asiatique 1878, pp. 348-377
L'histoire de l'insurrection des Tounganes sous le règne de Tao Kouang (1820-1828), Recueil de documents sur l'Asie centrale, Paris 1881 (txt, e, d)
Recit officiel de la Conquete du Turkistan par les Chinois (1759-1760), Bulletin de géographie historique et descriptive / Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques 1895, pp. 87-119 (txt, e, d)

Ishida, Mikinosuke:
A biographical study of Giuseppe Castiglione (Lang Shih-ning), a Jesuit painter in the court of Peking under the Ch'ing Dynasty, Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko no. 19, 1960, pp. 79-121

Jombert, Charles-Antoine:
Catalogue de l'oeuvre de Ch. Nic. Cochin fils, pp. 120-121

Journal de Paris:
16 Helman conquest prints (IdFF) published 1783-85: 4 deliveries with 4 prints each:
- 12 October 1783, page 1176: print no.: 1, 4, 9, 13
- 5 April 1784, page 425: print no.: 2, 3, 6, 8
- 5 November 1784, page 1302: print no.: 5, 7, 11, 16
- 8 April 1785, page 400: print no.: 10, 12, 14, 15
- 22 May 1786, page 575: print no.: 17-20
- 9 October 1786, page 1167: Abrégé historique
- 16 March 1788, page 335: print no.: 21-24
- 18 May 1788, page 607: Faits mémorables des empereurs de la Chine
- 8 July 1788, page 831: Faits mémorables des empereurs de la Chine
- 11 September 1788, page 1099: Faits mémorables des empereurs de la Chine
- 30 November 1788, page 1429: Faits mémorables des empereurs de la Chine

Journal Encyclopédique ou Universel, 1783, tome VIII, I, pp. 168–69 and II pp. 351–55

Ka Bo Tsang (曾嘉宝):
Portraits of Meritorious Officials: Eight Examples from the First Set Commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, Arts Asiatiques 1992, pp. 69-88
Ji fenggong, shu weiji: Qing Gaozong shiquan wugong de tuxiang jilu - gongchenxiang yu zhantu [Victories commemorated: Pictorial records of the Ten Perfect Military Achievements of the Qianlong Emperor: Portraits of meritorious officers and battle paintings], Gugong wenwu yuekan 1990 (no. 93), pp. 38-65
"Pingding Jinchuan qian wushi gongchenxiang" juan canben [The fragment of the handscroll "The First Series of Fifty Portraits of Meritorious Officers of the Jinchuan Campaign"], WenWu 1993, pp. 54-56

Kasakevich, V. M.:
Sources to the history of the Chinese military expeditions into Mongolia, MS 1943, pp. 328-335

Khayutina, Maria:
Eine Chinesische Kanone aus der Ära des Kangxi-Kaisers (reg. 1661–1722) im Besitz des Bernischen Historischen Museums, 2015

Kim, Kwangmin:
Profit and Protection: Emin Khwaja and the Qing Conquest of Central Asia 1759—1777, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 71, No. 3 (AUGUST 2012), pp. 603-626

Kleutghen, Kristina:
Peepboxes, Society, and Visuality in Early Modern China, 2015, Art History, pp. 763-777
Exotic Medicine: How Ignatius Sichelbarth's Painting of a Musk Deer Appeared in the Philosophical Transactions, Orientations 2019, pp. 103-109

Kraft, Eva:
Zum Dsungarenkrieg im 18. Jahrhundert, 1953 (Excerpt)

Krueger, John:
The Ch'ien-lung Inscriptions of 1755 and 1758 in Oirat-Mongolian, Central Asiatic Journal 1972, pp. 59–69.

Kuropatkin, A. N.:
Kashgaria, Calkutta 1882 (excerpt)

Lai, Yu-chih (賴毓芝):
「鑄造」疆域: 聖彼得堡冬宮博物館藏清乾隆時期二匣回疆錢幣研究 (Casting the Territory: A Study of Two Cabinets of Coins from the Qianlong Period in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg), 《中央研究院近代史研究所集刊》,第101期(民國107 年9 月),頁1-62。, Bulletin of the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, no. 101 (2018), pp. 1-62.

LAM, Truong-Buu:
Intervention versus Tribute in Sino-Vietnamese Relations 1788 - 1790, in John K. Fairbank, The Chinese World Order, Cambridge 1968, pp. 165-179

Laufer, Berthold:
Christian Art in China, Ostasiatische Studien 1910, pp. 100-118
Sonderdruck (Special Print), same as above

Ledderose, Lothar:
Machang durchbricht die feindlichen Linien, Wissenschaftskolleg 1984, pp. 181-193
Chinese Influence on European Art, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, China and Europe 1991, pp. 226-227
Machang durchbricht die feindlichen Linien u.a., Orchideen und Felsen, 1998, pp. 342-256

Lee, Chao-Ying:
The Material Application of the 18th Century French Collection on the Literatures of History of Taiwan Written by Missionaries — Campaign Against Taiwan and Indigenous Image, Journal of Literature and Art Studies, February 2018, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.308-329

Lehner, Monika:
Zur “Verewigung der Kriegsverrichtungen des Kaisers von China” (1766), Hypotheses 2014 (+ Wienerisches Diarium Nr. 103, 24.12.1766 + Gothaische gelehrte Zeitungen, 05.02.1774)

Leverenz:
From Painting to Print, The Battle of Qurman from 1760, Orientations, May 2010, pp. 48-53 (academia.edu download).
On Three Different Sets of East Turkestan Paintings, Orientations, November 2011, pp.96-103 (academia.edu download).
Drawings, Proofs and Prints from the Qianlong Emperor's East Turkestan Copperplate Engravings, Arts Asiatiques, 2013, pp. 39-60 (academia.edu download).
Vues d’optique with Chinese Subjects, Print Quarterly, 2014, pp. 20-44 (academia.edu download).
Erster Weltkrieg: Chinas Enttäuschung als Siegermacht, Zeit Online, April 2014.
A Third Fragment of The Battle of Qurman, Orientations, May 2015, pp. 76-80 (academia.edu download).
Review: Two New Publications on Qianlong's Officer Paintings, Orientations, May 2016, pp. 97-98 (academia.edu download).
From Berlin to Beijing. F.W.K. Müller and the Acquisition of Chinese Art in 1901, Monumenta Serica: Journal of Oriental Studies, 66.2, December 2018, pp. 465–506. (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9), (academia.edu download).
A Set of Eight Gurkha Campaign Copperplate Prints, Getty Research Journal, Volume 11 (2019), pp. 185–196. (academia.edu download).
Isidore-Stanislas Helman and J. Pélicier, Print Quarterly, March 2020, pp. 75–76. (academia.edu download).
The Looting of the Winter Palace in Peking in 1900-1901, Journal for Art Market Studies 2 (2020).
A Unique Red-Ink Drawing of the Conquest of the Western Regions, Orientations, January 2023, pp. 62-66. (academia.edu download)
Die französischen Manuskripte zu den Pariser Ostturkestan-Kupferstichen, Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, November 2023, pp. 9-19. (academia.edu download)

Li, Jie:
Li Hongzhang und Krupp, Die militärische Zusammenarbeit und die Modernisierung Chinas, Dissertation, Bonn, 2021

Li, Xiaobing (ed.):
China at War: An Encyclopedia, 2012

Lin, Jiawei:
乾隆朝紫光阁赐宴图研究 (On The Illustrated Imperial Banquets Held at Ziguanggé Pavilion in Qianlong’s Regime), Palace Museum Journal 2016, no. 4, pp. 67-96 (E, D)

Liu, Shi-yee 劉晞儀 :
Containing the West in the Manchu Realm? Emperor Qianlong's Deer Antler Scrolls, Orientations, September 2015, p. 58-65 (academia.edu download)
大都會館藏《石渠》著錄書畫概述和個案:乾隆《鹿角圖》兼論《戰圖》版畫 (Overview of the Metropolitan Museum collection recorded in the Shiqu baoji with case studies of Qianlong's Deer Antlers scrolls and campaign pictures), (academia.edu download)
‘Show and Tell’: The Art of Storytelling in Chinese Painting, Orientations, November/December 2016, pp.44-53 (academia.edu download)
Emperor Qianlong's East Turkestan Campaign Pictures: The Catalytic Role of the Documentation of Louis XIV's Conquests. Arts of Asia (March-April 2017), pp.82-97 (pdf)
乾隆平定回疆图像系列:法王路易十四战功图壁毯和版画的启发. 故宫博物院院刊 Palace Museum Journal 1(201) (2019): 31--58 (academia.edu download)

Loades, Mike:
The Composite Bow (Weapon), 2016

Loehr, George Robert:
Giuseppe Castiglione (1688-1766), pittore di corte di Ch'ien-Lung, imperatore della Cina, Roma 1940, pp. 37-68
Castiglione, Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, 1979, pp. 92-94

Loehr, Max:
Engravings of Ch´ien-Lung´s Formosa Campaign, Bulletin of the University of Michigan Museum of Art 1954, pp. 12-15

Luce, Gordon H:
Chinese invasions of Burma in the 18th century, Journal of Burma Research Society (JBRS) 1925, pp. 115-128

Ma, Ya-chen 马雅贞:
戰勳與宦蹟: 明代戰爭相關圖像與官員視覺文化, Military Achievement and Official Accomplishment: Ming Images of Warfare and the Visual Culture of Officialdom, Journal of Ming Studies, 2011, pp. 49-89 (Japanese, D)
War and empire: images of battle during the Qianlong reign, in: Qing Encounters, 2015, pp. 158-172
Commemorative images of war: the cultural construction of the Qing martial prowess 刻画战勋清朝帝国武功的文化建构, 2016 (E, D)
園林、行宮與皇權:乾隆宮廷刊印的皇苑圖繪 (Gardens, Travel Palaces, and the Imperial Prerogative: Images of Imperial Gardens Published by the Qianlong Court), 新史學二十八卷三期 9.2017, pp. 139-206
滿洲尚武文化再檢視─以康熙朝創發方略為例, A Re-examination of the Manchu Culture of Martial Prowess: The Invention of Fanglue (Official Campaign Histories) by the Kangxi Court, 新史學 New History 2019, pp. 55-122 (E, D)
To Visualize or Not to Visualize: Commemorating the Suppression of Revolt in Early Qing China, in: Revolts and political violence in early modern imagery, 2022, pp. 21-35

Marchesano, Louis:
Charles Le Brun's Constantine Prints for Louis XIV and Jean-Baptiste Colbert, L'Estampe au Grand Siècle, 2010, pp. 463-82

Marx, Jacques:
De la Chine à la chinoiserie. Échanges culturels entre la Chine, l'Europe et les Pays-Bas méridionaux (XVIIe-XVIIIe siècles), Revue belge de Philologie et d'Histoire Année 2007 85-3-4 pp. 735-779, pp. 665-688
L’Empereur de Chine ouvrant le premier sillon: réception et exploitation politique de l’image dans la culture française du XVIIIe siècle, Relations interculturelles Chine-Europe (XVIe-XIXe siècles), not dated

McMahon, Daniel:
The Qing Response to the Miao Kings of China’s 1795-7 Miao Revolt, Hmong Studies Journal 2017 (Vol. 17), p. 1-37

Meiners, Christoph:
Abhandlungen Sinesischer Jesuiten, 1778, pp. 665-688

Menshikova, Maria:
The Unknown Portrait of a Member of the Qing Imperial Family in the collection of the Hermitage, 53rd Annual Meeting of the PIAC, St. Petersburg, 2010

Mercure de France:
Octobre 1769, p. 194-196 (on the drawings from China)
18 Novembre 1783, p. 2 (Advertising the Helmans prints)
3 Septembre 1785, p. 45 (Advertising the Helmans prints)

Michaud, Louis-Gabriel:
Biographie Universelle, 1813, pp. 161-163 (COCHIN)

Michels, Eckard:
Chinas imperiale Kriege: Die militärische Expansion Chinas während der Qing-Dynastie 1644-1911, in: Imperialkriege Von 1500 Bis Heute, 2011

Middleton, Robert: 2013
The Tajik Pamirs, The Sumantash Stone

Millward, James A.:
Beyond the Pass, Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864, 1998

Mish, John L.:
The Return of the Turgut, Journal of Asian History 1970, pp. 80-82

Monval, Jean:
Les Conquêtes de la Chine, Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 1905, pp. 147-160

Mosca, Matthew W.:
The Qing Empire in the Fabric of Global History, The Prospect of Global History 2016

Moss, Paul:
The Fight For Shih-Feng Pao (1784), The British Antique Dealers Association Handbook 1987, pp. 24-29

F.W.K. Müller:
Einige neue Erwerbungen der indischen und chinesischen Abteilungen des kgl. Museums f. Vökerkunde Berlin, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie XXXV, 1903, pp. 483-484

Lars Müller:
Returns of Cultural Artefacts and Human Remains in a (Post)colonial Context, Working Paper Deutsches Zentrum Kulturgutverluste, 1/2021

Musillo, Marco:
Bridging Europe and China: The Professional Life of Giuseppe Castiglione (1688-1766), PhD Thesis 2005
Mid-Qing Arts and Jesuit Visions: Encounters and Exchanges in Eighteenth-Century Beijing, 2011

Naquin, Susan:
Giuseppe Castiglione/Lang Shining: A Review Essay, T’oung Pao 95 (2009), pp. 393-412
Paul Houo, a dealer in Antiquities in Early Twentieth Century Peking, Études chinoises XXXIV-2 (2015), 203-244

Neue Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und freyen Künste, 1784, XXIX
pp. 331–332

Newby, Laura:
Copper Plates for the Qianlong Emperor: from Paris to Peking via Canton, Journal of Early Modern History 16 (2012), pp. 161-199

Nie Chongzheng (聂崇正):
谈紫光阁功臣像, Zijincheng 紫禁城 2008-01, pp. 138-169
Talking about the meritorious officers paintings of Ziguang Ge (Hall of Purple Glory)
《乾隆平定准部回部战图》 和清代的铜版画, WenWu 文物 1980-04-30, pp. 61-64
Qianlong´s East-Turkestan Battlepaintings and Copperengravings
谈清代 《紫光阁功臣像》, WenWu 文物 1990-01-31, pp. 65-69
Talking about Qing Dynasty meritorious officers paintings of Ziguang Ge
西柏林观清宫廷画记, Palace Museum Journal 故宫博物院院刊 1986-10-01, pp. 59-64
Watching Court Painting of Qing Dynasty in West Berlin
纽约观紫光阁功臣像记, Collector 收藏家 2002-02-15, pp. 24-26
Watching the meritorious officers paintings of Ziguang Ge in New York
紫光阁功臣中的《阿桂像》轴, Zhongguo lishi wenwu 中国历史文物 2008-12-15, pp. 25-27
The Portrait of the Meritorious Officer A-Gui in the Ziguangge (Hall of Purple Glory)
清朝宫廷铜版画《乾隆平定准部回部战图》, Palace Museum Publ. 故宫博物院院刊 1989-12-31
Qing court copper engravings of «Qianlong´s East-Turkestan Battle Paintings»
观徐扬画平定西域献俘礼图卷, Collector 收藏家 2009-03-01
Appreciation of Xu Yang´s Picture of Pacifying Xiyu and Offering Captive Ritual (pingdingxiyuxianfulitu)
郎世宁和他的历史画、油画作品, Palace Museum Publ. 故宫博物院院刊 1979-10-01
Castigliones historical oil paintings
郎世宁和他的历史画、油画作品, Fine Arts 美术研究 1995-02-15
The paintings of foreign painters at the Qing court
清代宫廷油画述略, Palace Museum Publ. 故宫博物院院刊 1995-12-30
A summary of the oil paintings at the Qing court
清宫外国画家谈, Fine Arts 美术 1985-05-31
About foreign painters at the Qing court
清平定两金川功臣像钩沉, Collector 收藏家 1995-08-06
Outstanding ministers during the pacification of Jinchuan
王致诚、艾启蒙和潘廷章的油画, Fine Arts 美术 1990-10-28
The oil paintings of Jean Denis Attiret, Ignaz Sichelbarth and Giuseppe Panzi
清宫画家郎世宁和他的绘画, Beijing University Publ. House 北京大学出版社 July 2008. Qing court painter Castiglione and his paintings
荣耀与辉煌的重现 紫光阁内的巨幅战图, 紫禁城 Forbidden City journal, 2018/05, pp. 114-138.

Onuma, Takahiro:
250 Years History of the Turkic-Muslim Camp in Beijing, Central Eurasian Research Series No. 2, 2009
A Collection of Documents from the Kazakh Sultans to the Qing Dynasty, Central Eurasian Research Series Special Issue 1, 2010
The Shift in Qing-Kazakh Relations: The Qing Western Territory in the 1770s, Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, 2019

Oidtmann, Max:
Banquets, Horses, and Blazing-Hot Rebellions: Qing Frontier Administration and the Muslim Rebellions in Taozhou, 1863-1867, 2005

Olivová, Lucie:
Wall-Painting after Chinese Fashion in Bohemia, Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, 2021

Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de:
Histoire de la conqueste de la Chine Par Les Tartares, Contenant Plusieurs Choses Remarquables; Touchant la Religion, les Moeurs, & les Coûtumes de ces deux Nations, Ecrite en Espagnol par M. de Palafox, Evesque sÓsma. & Traduite en François par le Sieur Colle, Amsterdam : Bernard 1723

Pang, T.A. / Pchelin, N.G.:
Portraits of famous generals from the reign of Emperor Qianlong, from the collection of the State Hermitage, SPb, Russia, of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, Written Monuments of the Orient, 2(15), Autumn-Winter 2011, pp. 262-278 (Russian), English translation
Portraits of Meritorious Officers from the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum: Restoration of the Scrolls and Revised Reading of the Texts, Written Monuments of the Orient, Vol. 13, No. 4 (27), Winter 2016, pp. 88-110

Papas, Alexandre:
Khojas of Kashgar, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History 2017

Pastukhov, Alexey:
“Qinding Huangyu Xiyu Tuzhi” as a Source of the Information of Weapons and Military Symbols for the Population of Central Asia in the middle of the 18th century, Bylye Gody, 2021 (E, D)
Вооружение и знамена ойратов Джунгарии середины XVIII в. по материалам «Циньдин Хуанъюй Сиюй тучжи», Oriental studies, 2021 (E, D)
Вооружение и знамена мусульманского населения Восточного Туркестана и сопредельных территорий середины XVIII в. по материалам «Циньдин Хуанъюй Сиюй тучжи», Mongolologie (Mongol Sudlal), 2021 (E, D)
Восстание тонхаков и начало японо-китайской интервенции в, History of Far Eastern Region in XVII-XX centuries, especialy Qing Period (1636-1912) (E, D)

Pearce, Nicholas:
Qianlong’s Western Campaign engravings. In: Knothe, F. (ed.) Imagining Qianlong, Louis XV’s Chinese Emperor Tapestries and Battle Scene Prints at the Imperial court in Beijing. University Museum and Art Gallery, University of Hong Kong, 2018, pp. 41-54
Beyond the ‘Ten Complete Military Victories’ . In: Representing the Past in the Art of the Long Nineteenth Century, Imprint Routledge, 2021, pp. 164-179

Pelliot, Paul:
Review of Stephen W. Bushell: Chinese Art, Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 1905, pp. 211-217
Review of Franke / Laufer: Epigraphische Denkmäler aus China, Journal Asiatique 1914, pp. 177-191
Les Conquetes de I'Empereur de la Chine, T'oung Pao 1921, pp. 183-274 (txt)
La peinture et la gravure européennes en Chine au temps de Mathieu Ricci, T'oung Pao 1921 (XX), pp. 1-18
Conquêtes de l'Empereur de la Chine, Byblis 1922, pp. 107-110
Review of Edward Strange Chinese Lacquer, T'oung Pao 1928, pp. 131-133
Review of Hans Fürstenberg: Kaiser Kien-lung´s französisches Kupferstichwerk, T'oung Pao 1932, pp. 125-127
Notes Critiques d'histoire Kalmouke, Oeuvres posthumes 1960 (excerpt)
Review by Joseph F. Fletcher: Notes Critiques d'histoire Kalmouke, Oeuvres posthumes 1960

Peng, Ying-chen:
Staging Sovereignty: Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) and Late Qing Court Art Production, Dissertation UCLA 2014

Perdue, Peter C.:
Military Mobilization in Seventeenth and Eighteenth- Century China, Russia, and Mongolia, Modern Asian Studies 1996, pp. 757-793
Comparing Empires: Manchu Colonialism + Boundaries, Maps, and Movement: Chinese, Russian, and Mongolian Empires in Early Modern Central Asia, The International History Review 1998, pp. 255-286
Fate and Fortune in Central Eurasian Warfare: Three Qing Emperors and Their Mongol Rivals, Warfare in Inner Asian History 500-1800, 2002, pp. 385-402 (excerpt)

Pfister, Louis:
Notices biographiques et bibliographiques sur les jesuites de l'ancienne mission de Chine 1552-1773, pp. 635-639 (CASTIGLIONE), p. 787-792 (ATTIRET)

Picard, René:
Les peintres jésuites à la cour de Chine, Grenoble 1973, pp. 80-82

Pirazzoli-T'Serstevens, Michèle:
Gravures des conquêtes de l'empereur de chine k'ien-long au musée guimet, 1969

Prügel, Roland:
Taiwan in Aufruhr, KulturGut, III. Quartal 2012, pp. 1-5
(Special-Katalog der chinesischen Ausstellung III, 1873, no.1500, V-VII, p. 47)

Qin, Huibin:
Western China (Xinjiang), History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Paris, 2005, pp. 379-386

Roger Portalis et Henri Beraldi:
Les Graveurs du dix-huitième siècle, vol. 2, Paris, Damascène Morgand & Charles Fatout, 1881, p. 572

Rawski, Evelyn S.:
Reenvisioning the Qing: The Significance of the Qing Period in Chinese History. The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Nov. 1996), pp. 829-850

Rawson, Jessica:
The British Museum book of Chinese Art, 1993, pp. 195/195 and pp. 282/183

Reed, Marcia:
Imperial impressions: the Qianlong emperor's print suites, in: Qing Encounters, pp. 124-139
The Qianlong Emperor’s Copperplate Engravings, Harvard Library Bulletin, Spring 2017, Volume 28: Number 1, pp. 1-24

Regmi, Mahesh C. (ed.):
An official Nepali account of the Nepal-China War, Regmi Research Series, 1970, pp. 177–188

Reichwein, Adolf:
China und Europa, geistige und künstlerische Beziehungen im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin 1923, pp. 62-63

Ringmar, Erik:
Malice in Wonderland: Dreams of the Orient and the Destruction of the Palace of the Emperor of China, Journal of World History, 2011, pp. 273-298

Ritter, Carl: Die Erdkunde im Verhältniß zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen
§ 57 Anm. a: Kaiser Kangxis Heeresdurchzug durch die Sandwüste 1696
§ 5 Erl. 6: Rebellion der Khodjas gegen die chinesischen Usurpationen
§ 71 Anm. 2: Gebirgspassage des Chinesen Heeres beim Überfall in Nepal 1792
§ 33 Erl. 6: Völker- und Herrscher-Wechsel im alten Dsungaren-Lande ... bis 1826

Rondell, Scott M.:
Lessons in Manchu Archery, 2015

Schlombs, Adele:
Das Bildnis des Generals Mingliang: Ein chinesisches Heldenportrait, Kölner Museums Bulletin 1995, pp. 30-36
Meisterwerke aus China, Korea und Japan, Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst Köln, 1995, pp. 102-105

Seo Yoonjung:
Connecting Across Boundaries: The Use of Chinese Images in Late Choson Court Art from Transcultural and Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Dissertation 2014 (see fn. 516)
Art and Material Culture of Qing Dynasty and Its Transmission to Joseon through Diplomatic Channels in the King Jeongjo’s Reign (in Korean), Art History Journal 2019, 미술사학보, Volume 53, pp. 123-150

Shaw, Robert B:
The History of the Khojas of Eastern Turkestan, Supplement to the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengale, 1897, pp. i-vi, 1-67

Siu, Victoria:
Castiglione and the Yuanming Yuan Collections, Orientations 1988, pp. 72-79

Sommer, Deborah:
A letter from a jesuit painter in Qianlong's court at Chengde, New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde, London 2004, pp. 171-184.

Spence, Jonathan D.:
The Search for Modern China, 1990

Stary, Giovanni:
Mandschurische Miszellen, Asiatische Forschungen 1982, pp. 76-86
Tre 'Ritratti con Elogio' come Esempi della Tecnica Poetica Mancese, Annali della Facoltà di Lingue e Letterature Straniere di Ca' Foscari 1982, pp. 97-105
The "Machu Cannons" Cast by Ferdinand Verbiest and the Hitherto Unknown Title of his Instructions + Shu Liguang: Ferdinand Verbiest and the Casting of Cannons in the Qing Dynasty, Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688) Jesuit Missionary, Scientist, Engineer and Diplomat, 1994

Strange, Edward:
Chinese Lacquer, 1926, pp. 47-48

Sullivan, Michael:
Recent Acquisitions of Stanford Museum, Newsletter June 1970
The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art, University of California Press, 1989, pp. 67-80

Sun, Jing:
The illusion of verisimilitude: Johan Nieuhof’s images of China, PhD Thesis 2013

Sutton, Donald S.:
Ethnic Revolt in the Qing Empire: The "Miao Uprising" of 1795-1797 Reexamined, Asia Major, 3d ser., Vol. 16, No. 2 (2003), pp. 105-152.

Szrajber, Tanya:
The Victories of the Emperor Qianlong, Print Quarterly 2006, pp. 28-46

Tafel, Albert:
Meine Tibetreise, XV. Durchs Goldflußland, 1914

Takata Tokio:
平定西域战图解, 2009
〔解說〕平定西域戰圖, 2011
Qianlong Emperor's Copperplate Engravings of the "Conquest of Western Regions", Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, No. 70, pp. 111-129 (2012).
same in russian, Monuments of the Orient, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2011 , pp. 279-290 (summary in english)

Têng, Ssu-yü:
The Nien Army and Their Guerrilla Warfare 1851-1868, 1961 (excerpt)

Theobald, Ulrich:
The Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771 – 1776): Economic, Social and Political Aspects of an Important Qing Period Border War, PhD Thesis 2010
War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China A Study of the Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776), 2013
Craftsmen and Specialist Troops in Early Modern Chinese Armies, in: Kai Filipiak (ed.), Civil-Military Relations in Chinese History: From Ancient China to the Communist Takeover, New York, 2015, pp. 191-209.

Thiele, Peter:
Darstellung von Kampfszenen des 18. Jahrhunderts in Chinas Randgebieten am Beispiel Taiwans, Baessler Archiv 1978, pp. 281-298

Tom, Philip:
Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 36, 2001
Military sabers of the Qing dynasty, published on www.mandarinmansion.com, 2009

Tripodes, Lucia:
Painting and diplomacy at the Qianlong court: A commemorative picture by Wang Zhicheng (Jean-Denis Attiret), Res Anthropology and Aesthetics 35, Spring 1999, pp. 185-200

Trinh, David:
Listening for Echoes from the Past: Chinese Operational Design of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Monograph 2018

Veit, Veronika:
Die in Deutschland befindlichen Portraits der von Ch´ienlung 1754-1755 unterworfenen Ölotenfürsten, Zentralasiatische Studien 1970, pp. 199-237
Neue weitere in Deutschland befindliche Portraits verdienter Offiziere der Ch´ienlung Zeit, Zentralasiatische Studien 1978, pp. 543-591

Vampelj Suhadolnik, Nataša:
Ferdinand Augustin Hallerstein on Giuseppe Castiglione`s Art, Asian Studies, 3(2), 2015, pp. 33-56

Vissiere, M.A.:
Un Manuscrit Poetique de l´Empereur K´ien-Long, Bulletin de ... 1911, pp. 105-113

Vollmer, John E.:
Costume as Symbol in Traditional China, Arts of Asia 1978, Vol. 8, pp. 42-53

Vossilla, Francesco:
Giuseppe Castiglione pittore nel Celeste Impero, National Palace Museum 2015, pp. 135-145
The Jesuit painter and his Emperor. Some comments regarding Giuseppe Castiglione and the Qianlong Emperor, National Palace Museum Bulletin, 2016, pp.69-87
Some Examples of Artistic Exchange between East and West, particularly from the Japan-China-Italy Perspective, 2018, pp.237-262

Wädow, Gerd:
Die "Schlachtenkupfer" des chinesischen Kaisers Qianlong (1711-1799), Eine digitale Präsentation von 64 Kupferdrucken aus dem Bestand der Ostasienabteilung der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Bibliotheks-Magazin 2011, pp. 17-21

Waldersee, Alfred Graf von:
Denkwürdigkeiten des General-Feldmarschalls Alfred Grafen von Waldersee, vol.3: Oberbefehlshaber in China (1900-1901), Berlin 1923.
Die Eroberung und Plünderung Pekings im August 1900, Preußische Jahrbücher 1923, pp. 283-293
English translation Plundering Peking, The Living Age, Vol. 317, No. 4118 (June 9, 1923), pp. 563-569

Waley-Cohen, Joanna:
Exile in Mid-Qing China, 1991 (excerpt)
God and Guns in Eighteenth-Century China: Jesuit Missionaries and the Military Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor 1736-1796, Contact between Cultures Volume 4, 1992, pp. 94-99
China and Western Technology in the Late Eighteenth Century, American Historical Review 1993, pp. 1525-1544
Commemorating War in Eighteenth-Century China, Modern Asian Studies 1996, pp. 869-899
Religion, War, and Empire-Building in Eighteenth-Century China, The International History Review 1998, pp. 336-352
Military Ritual and the Qing Empire, Warfare in Inner Asian History 500-1800, 2002, pp. 403-438 (excerpt)
Changing Spaces of Empire in Eighteenth-Century Qing China, Political Frontiers..., 2003, pp. 324-350 (excerpt)
The Culture of War in China, 2006 (whole book)
On The Militarization of Culture in The Eighteenth-Century Qing Empire, Common Knowledge 2006, Vol 12, pp. 96-106

Walravens, Hartmut:
Europa und die Kaiser von China, Exhibition Berlin 1985, pp. 163-172
China Illustrata, 1987, whole Exhibition Catalogue
AltaicaBerolinensia, 1993, pp. 307-330 .
IFLANET speech 1996 (pdf)
Historical and Cultural Interaction, 1997, pp. 401-423 .
Baessler Archiv 2001, pp. 79-89 .
Zu einigen Porträts der Qianlong-Ära in China. Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde 15.2012/13: 127–161 .
Die ehemalige Sammlung von Porträts verdienter Offiziere der Feldzüge des Qianlong-Kaisers (Catalogue of the former Berlin collection of meritorious officers of the Qing period, with Manchu & Chinese eulogies), Baessler-Archiv 2014, pp. 125-166 .
Die ehemalige Sammlung von Porträts verdienter Offiziere der Feldzüge des Qianlong-Kaisers, 2. Teil, Baessler-Archiv 2016, pp. 111-150 .
Vier weitere Porträts von Tapferen der Kriegszüge des Qianlong-Kaisers (18. Jh.), Journal fünf Kontinente 2, 2016-2017, pp.96-11 .
Symbolism of sovereignty in the context of the Dzungar campaigns of the Qianlong emperor, Written Monuments of the Orient 2017 (1), pp. 73-90 .
Review: Annette Bügener - Die Heldengalerie des Qianlong-Kaisers, Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 2018; 113(2): 177–179 .
in collaboration with Marion STEINICKE: George Robert Loehr jr. (1892–1974) und die Forschung u¨ber die Pekinger Jesuitenkünstler. Quellen und Materialien in deutscher Sprache, 2019

Walther, Georg Friedrich:
Ueber die sechszehn berühmten chinesischen Schlachtenstücke, In Meusel, Johann Georg. Neue Miscellaneen artistischen Inhalts für Künstler und Kunstliebhaber, herausgegeben von Johann Georg Meusel. Leipzig: G. Fleischer, 1795.

Wang, Ching-Ling 王靜靈:
»Machang durchbricht die feindlichen Linien«, Eine Neubewertung der Querrolle in der Sammlung der Museums für Asiatische Kunst, OZ Ostasiatische Zeitschrift 2016 (no. 31), pp.24–32
Portraits of Meritorious Officials, New Discoveries Regarding Portraits of Meretorious Officials During the Qianlong Reign (1736-1795), Aziatische Kunst 2016 (vol.46, no.3), pp.39-47
A Dutch model for a Chinese woodcut, On Han Huaide's Herding a bull in a forest, Netherlands Yearbook for History of Art 2016 (no. 31), pp.233–250
柏林收藏的紫光閣功臣像及其相關作品新論 (New Discoveries of the General Portraits and Related Works in the Berlin Collection), 故宮學術季刊 34:1 2016.09 [民105.09] 頁 153-214 (National Palace Museum Journal, Taiwan, Autumn 2016)
Chinoiserie in Reflection: European Objects and their Impact on Chinese Art in the Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, 2018

Wang, Lianming:
Church, A Sacred Event, and the Visual Perspective of an Etic Viewer: an 18th Century Western-Style Chinese Painting held in the Bibliotheque nationale de France, in: Rui O. Lopes (ed.), The Transcendence of the Arts in China and Beyond, vol. 2 (Historical Perspective), Lisbon 2014, 370-397.

Weiers, Michael:
Zu den mongolischen und mandschurischen Akten und Schriftstücken des 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert, Archiv für Zentralasiatische Geschichtsforschung, 1983
Der erste Schriftwechsel zwischen Khalkha und Mandschuren und seine Überliefeerung, ZAS 1987, pp. 107-139
Zum Verhältnis des Ch’ing-Staats zur lamaistischen Kirche in der frühen Yungcheng Zeit, ZAS 1988, pp. 115-131

Witkowski, Julian:
Erklaerung zweiter chinesischer Bilder aus rothem Lack (Zuisiju), Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völerkunde Ostasiens, 1874.

WU, Guo:
Miao Territory In High Qing Period, Front. Hist. China 2012, 7(2)

Yanhui:
刻版铭史 - 论清代宫廷铜版画战图及其它 (Engraved history - On the War Picture and Others of the Qing Dynasty Copper Engraving), 美术观察 ART OBSERVATION 2019-09 (E, D)

Yang, Bin:
Book review of The Sichuan Frontier and Tibet by Dai Yingcong, 2019

Yang, Boda:
Castiglione at the Qing Court, Orientations 1988, pp. 44-51

Yu, Hui-chun:
Bronzes from Afar Qianlong’s “Xiqing Xujian Jiabian Fulu, Taida Journal of Art History, 31 (2011), pp.151-204

Zettl, Erich:
Ignaz Sichelbarth 1708-1780. Missionar, Maler und Mandarin am chinesischen Kaiserhof, 2011.

Zhan, Zhen-peng: 詹鎮鵬:
帝國紀勳與地方貢品:乾隆朝《平定臺灣得勝圖》雕漆掛屏考 (Imperial Imagery and Local Tributes: Research on Carved Lacquer Panels of the Taiwan Campaign during the Qianlong Reign), 國立臺灣大學美術史研究集刊 ; 45期 (2018 / 09 / 01) , Pi - ii+189 (E, D)
“Divine Brushes from the Western Ocean: European Missionaries and Court Painting in High Qing China [海西妙筆:歐洲傳教士與康雍乾之清宮繪畫].” (In Chinese) Lecture presented at School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong. Hong Kong, August 11, 2018 (E, D)
The Global Lives of Qianlong’s Battle Pictures in 18th Century China and Beyonda Arts of Asia, Winter 2022 Magazine.

Zhang, Hongxing:
Studies in late Qing Dynasty battle paintings, Artibus Asiae 2000, pp. 265-296
流散在海内外的两组晚清宫廷战图考略 (same as above in Chinese)

Zhou, Shimeng:
Visualizing Power, University of Dublin, 2017

Zhou, Weiqiang 周維強 :
銅版汗青:欽定平定準噶爾回部戰圖之委法製作 (Copperplate and Historical Records: The Making of 'Victory in the Pacification of Dzungars and Muslims), NPM Monthly of Chinese Art 2015, pp.5-16 (E, D)
乾隆二十四年黑水營解圍戰與黑水圍解圖 (The Battle at the Black Water River in 1759 and the Diagram of 'Lifting of the Siege at the Black Water River), NPM Monthly of Chinese Art 2015, pp.57-68 (E, D)
蝕石印史:院藏〈關前坳華軍大勝圖〉考釋 (History in the Stones: Research and Interpretation of ‘Complete Victory by the Qing Army at Zhennan Pass'), NPM Monthly of Chinese Art 2016, pp.76-91 (E, D)
記功於銅:乾隆得勝圖銅版畫委法製作之代表性文物訪查記 (Victories Engraved on Copper: A Visit to the Artifacts Related to Emperor Qianlong's Assignment to France for the Making of a Number of Copper Engravings for His Military Victories), The History of Science Newsletter 2016.09, Vol 40, pp. 86-117

Zoratto, Bruno:
Giuseppe Castiglione, pittore italiano alla corte imperiale cinese, Schena 1994



Literature in Japanese

Ishida, Mikinosuke, Pari Kaicho Kenryu Nenkan Jun-kai Ryobu Heitei Tokusho-zu ni tsuite, Toyogaku-ho, 1919, pp. 396-448

Goto Sueo 1933, Shina Shiso no Furansu Seizen, Tokyo, 1933
Goto Sueo 1939, Shina Bunka to Shina-gaku no Kigen, Tokyo, 1939, p. 165

Toriyama Kiichi, Shin Koso Gyodai Heitei Iri Kaibu Zenzu, Shoko, p. 112

Fujita Shinya, Yan Xiangshi zo, Yamato Bunka, Nr. 89, March 1993, pp. 39-42



Indexes to Biographical Collections

Fang Chao-ying & Tu Lien-che, Index to 33 Ch'ing Biographic Collections (San shi san zhong Qing dai zhuan ji zong he yin de 三十三種清代傳記綜合引得). Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series No. 9

Hakki tsushi retsuden sakuin 八 旗 通 志 列 傳 索 引 Index to biographies in the Pa-ch'i tong-chih (Tokyo 1965)



Literature from this millennium (please purchase at the given location)

The Qianlong Emperor: Treasures from the Forbidden City, Exhibition Catalogue from the National Museum of Scotland 2002, Zhang Hongxing

Warfare in Inner Asian History 500-1800, 2002, Edited by Nicola di Cosmo

Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries and Human Geographies in Chinese History, 2003, Edited by Nicola di Cosmo

清代銅版戰功圖全編 Complete Collection with Pictures of Qing Copper Prints of Victorious Battles, Beijing, Xuefan chubanshe, 2003

Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Ausstellungskatalog, Asiatisches Museum Berlin, Herbert Butz, 2003

Butz, Herbert: Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, 2003

Schätze der Himmelssöhne, Die kaiserliche Sammlung aus dem Nationalen Palastmuseum, p. 356+357, Ausstellungskatalog Altes Museum, Berlin, 2003

The Manchu Way, 2005, Elliott, Mark C.

China Marches West, 2005, Perdue, Peter C.

China on Paper, p. 96-102, 2005; Marcia Reed / Paola Dematte

The Empire And the Khanate: A Political History of Qing Relations With Khoqand C. 1760-1860, 2005, Laura Newby

The Culture of War in China: Imperial Touring and the Construction of Qing Rule (1680-1785), 2006, Joanna Waley-Cohen

China’s Imperial Modern: The Painter’s Craft, 2012, Lisa Claypool

Les batailles de l'empereur de Chine, 2009, Pascal Torres

Imperial Illusions: Crossing Pictorial Boundaries in the Qing Palaces, 2014, Kristina Kleutghen

Qing Encounters: Artistic Exchanges between China and the West, 2015, edited Petra ten-Doesschate Chu and Ning Ding

Chang, Michael G: A Court on Horseback, Imperial Touring & the Construction of Qing Rule, 1680–1785, 2007

Die Heldengalerie des Qianlong-Kaisers, 2015, Annette Bügener (PDF)

Wang, Lianming: Jesuitenerbe in Peking: Sakralbauten und transkulturelle Räume, 1600-1800 / Jesuit Legacy in Beijing: Sacred Buildings and Transcultural Spaces, 1600-1800 (Heidelberg Transcultural Studies, Vol. 5), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2020.

Imagining Qianlong - Louis XV's Chinese Emperor Tapestries and Battle Scene Prints at the Imperial Court in Beijing, 2018, Florian Knothe/Kristel Smentek/Nicholas Pearce/Pascal-francois Bertrand

Berliner Schlachtenkupfer / Berlin Battle Engravings, 34 Druckplatten der Kaiser von China / 34 Copperplates for the Emperors of China, Berlin 2021. (Review: PQ 2022, Orientierungen, IIAS)


Literature on the Boxer rebellion

Loti, Pierre:
Les derniers jours de Pékin, Paris 1901.
The Last Days of Pekin.
Die letzten Tage von Peking.

Weale, Putnam:
Indiscreet letters from Peking, (vol 1+2), London 1901.
Indiskrete Briefe aus Peking.

Smith, Arthur H.:
China in Convulsion, (vol 1+2), New York 1901.

Savage-Landor, Arnold Henry:
China and the Allies, vol. 1, vol. 2, London 1901.

Henty, G. A.:
With the allies to Pekin, a tale of the relief of the legations, New York 1903.

Martin, W. A. P.:
The Siege in Peking: China against the World, New York 1900.

Müller, Alfred von:
Die Wirren in China und die Kämpfe der verbündeten Truppen,
Part 1 (Die Ereignisse im Jahre 1900 bis zum Eintreffen des Oberkommandos : mit einer kurzen Vorgeschichte),
Part 2 (Die Kämpfe in und um Tientsin. Der Entsatz von Peking. Die Vorgänge in Peking vor dem Entsatz und die deutschen Maßnahmen zur Sicherung der Etappenlinie Taku-Peking),
Part 3 (Ueberfahrt und erste Thätigkeit des deutschen Marine-Expeditionskorps auf dem Kriegsschauplatze. Die Boxerbewegung in der Mandschurei und die Gegenmaßregeln der Russen. Das Oberkommando. Die Rüstungen der Mächte. Die politische Lage nach der Einnahme von Peking. Ueberfahrt und erste Thätigkeit des deutschen Ostasiatischen Expeditionskorps),
Part 4 (Die Thätigkeit des Armee-Oberkommandos, des Ostasiatischen Expeditionskorps und der verbündeten Truppen auf dem Kriegsschauplatz in Petschili und in der Mandschurei. Friedensschluss.),
Berlin 1901.

Schön, Josef:
Vom Feldzug der Russen in China 1900, Organ der Militar Wissenschaftlichen Vereine 1901, pp. 89-142.

Borne, von der:
Ein Jahr als Feldjäger beim Armee-Ober-Kommando in Ostasien. Nach Tagebuchnotizen der Leutnants Pogge, Wallmann und Graf Wintzigerode sowie nach eigenen Aufzeichnungen. Neudamm 1902.

Kürschner, Joseph:
China. Schilderungen aus Leben und Geschichte Krieg und Sieg. Ein Denkmal den Streitern und der Weltpolitik. Berlin, 1902.

In und Um Peking, Während der Kriegswirren 1900-1901: Nach Photographischen Aufnahmen von den Herausgebern Marine-Stabsarzt Dr. Wang und Leutnant Freiherr von Meerscheidt-Hüllessem.

Theodor Ritter von Winterhalder:
Kämpfe in China: Eine Darstellung der Wirren und der Betheiligung von Österreich-Ungarns Seemacht an ihrer Niederwerfung in den Jahren 1900-1901, Wien und Budapest 1902.

Deutschland in China: 1900 - 1901; bearbeitet von Teilnehmern an der Expedition, Düsseldorf 1902.

Beals, Zephaniah Charles:
China And The Boxers: A Short History On The Boxer Outbreak, With Two Chapters On The Sufferings Of Missionaries And A Closing One On The Outlook, New York 1901.

Admiralstab der Marine (Hrsg.):
Die Kaiserliche Marine während der Wirren in China 1900 - 1901. Berlin 1903.

Scheibert, Justus:
Der Krieg in China 1900-1901 nebst einer Beschreibung der Sitten, Gebräuche und Geschichte des Landes, Part 1, Part 2, Berlin 1903.

Wegener, Georg:
Zur Kriegszeit Durch China, 1900-1901, Berlin 1902

Binder-Krieglstein, Eugen:
Die Kämpfe des Deutschen Expeditionskorps in China und ihre militärischen Lehren : mit 10 Skizzen und 1 Übersichtskarte, Berlin 1902

von Rauch, Fedor:
Mit Graf Waldersee in China, Berlin 1907.

Kleine, Friedrich:
Die Unterdrückung der Boxerunruhen in China 1900 nach ihrer völkerrechtlich Bedeutung, 51 pages, Breslau, Univ., Diss., 1913

Clements, Paul H.:
The Boxer Rebellion: a Political and Diplomatic Review, New York 1915.

Auswärtiges Amt:
Die Erfüllung des Vertrags von Versailles durch Deutschland bis zum 1. April 1921, Reichsdruckerei, Berlin 1921.

Held, Hermann J.:
Chronik des Völkerrechts für die Jahre 1921 und 1922, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 19. Bd. (1923), pp. 355-398.


Deutsche Militarärztliche Zeitschrift, 1901 (Eine Pulverexplosim und deren Folgen, 225, Ueber die während der Ostasiatischen Expedition iin Feldlazareth IV (Paotingfu) beobachteten Schussverletzungen, 225, Matignon, Der Gesundheitsdienst während der Belagerung der französischen Gesandtschaft in Peking 1900 437, Schlick, Meine kriegschirurgischen Erfahrungen während der chinesischen Wirren im Juni bis Oktober 1900, 449, Bericht über die im baktariologischen und chemischen Laboratorium zu Tianjin in der Zeit vom 1. Oktober 1900 bis 1. März, 1901 ausgeführten Arbeiten, 548, Herbold. Ueber die Theilnahme eines Zuges des Feldlazareths IV an der Expedition zum Ku-kuan-Pass-Pass, 635, Ueber die bei der II. Brigade des Ostasiatischen Expeditionskorps vorzugsweise vorgekommenen Krankheiten mit Bezug auf Klima und Boden der Provinz Petchili in China, 641)

Kriegstechnische Zeitschrift, 1901 (Die russisch-asiatischen Eisenbahnen in ihrer militärischen Bedeutung, Zur Thätigkeit der russischen Ingenieure im Etappendienst während des Feldzuges in der Mandschurei 1900)


Fricke, Melchior (Herausgeber Otto Puffahrt):
Gegen die Boxer in China, Aus dem Tagebuch eines Teilnehmers. Lüneburg 2003, 26 pages, 1 map, 1 Foto, 3 Faksimiles.

Lessel, Emil von (Herausgeber Walther Hubatsch):
Böhmen, Frankreich, China: 1866 - 1901, Erinnerungen eines preussischen Offiziers. Studien zur Geschichte Preussens; vol. 34, 323 pages. (excerpt)




Wendorff, Jean-Jacques:
Der Einsatz der deutschen und französischen Expeditionskorps in China während des Boxeraufstandes 1900-1901. Eine vergleichende Studie deutscher und französischer Akteure und Wahrnehmungen. Dissertation 2014.

Wendorff, Jean-Jacques:
Der Boxeraufstand in China 1900/1901 als deutscher und französischer Erinnerungsort, Ein Vergleich anhand ausgewählter Quellengruppen, 2016 (excerpt).

Jing, Liu:
Wahrnehmung des Fremden: China in deutschen und Deutschland in chinesischen Reiseberichten Vom Opiumkrieg bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Doktorarbeit 2000.

Korbelius, Bo:
Patriotismus und die Boxerbewegung, Magisterarbeit 2010.

McGuffin, Sean:
The Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1901 ODUMUNC 2017 Issue Brief Historical Crisis.

Martin, Bernd:
Soldatische Radikalisierung und Massaker. Das deutsche Erste und Zweite Seebataillon im Einsatz im “Boxerkrieg” in China 1900. Militaergeschichtliche Zeitschrift, vol. 69, no. 2, 2010, pp. 221-241.

Dossier Waldersee:
Anlage zum Antrag auf Aberkennung der Ehrenbürgerwürden für Alfred Graf von Waldersee in Hamburg und Hamburg-Altona. Oktober 2012.

Michels, Eckard:
Das »Ostasiatische Expeditionskorps« des Deutschen Reiches in China 1900/01 in Imperialkriege von 1500 bis heute, pp. 401–416, 2011.

Selzer, Rolf:
Die Militärpolizei des Ostasiatischen Expeditionskorps, der Ostasiatischen Besatzungsbrigade und des Ostasiatischen Detachement. Beiträge zur Blankwaffen- & Heereskunde 2007.

Varli, Fatma:
Der Boxeraufstand in China - Hintergründe, Ursachen und Verlauf, Examensarbeit, 2011.

Peter C. Purdue & Ellen Sebring, 2016:
The Boxer Uprising l: The Gathering Storm in North China (1860-1900)
The Boxer Uprising
Carving Up China
Imperialist Rivalries
Source & Credits
The Boxer Uprising 2: War and Aftermath (1900-1901).
War & Siege
The View from China
Occupation & Aftermath
Source & Credits

Trütken-Kirsch, Heinz-Jürgen:
Gesandter im Dienste Seiner Majestät, Zur politischen Instrumentalisierung des Clemens von Ketteler (1853–1900), Westfälische Zeitschrift 164, 2014, pp. 47-78

Klein, Thoralf:
The Boxer War - The Boxer Uprising, Mass Violence & Résistance, online 2008

Rühlemann, Martin W.:
Bayern in China., Die Mythen des Kolonialkrieges 1900/01 und die Münchner Kriegerschaft deutscher Kolonialtruppen

Bundesarchiv, Virtuelle Ausstellung, Deutschlands Adler im Reich des Drachen,
Deutschland und China im Zeitalter des Kolonialismus
Einführung, Historischer Überblick und Impressionen
Gouvernement Kiautschou
Gouvernement Kiautschou - Gouverneur
Gouvernement Kiautschou
Gouvernement Kiautschou
Boxeraufstand
Das Ende des Pachtgebietes

Brun, Jean-François:
Intervention armée en Chine : l’expédition internationale de 1900-1901, Revue historique des armées, 2010, p. 14-45

Chou, Wei-chiang:
Astronomical Instruments, Diplomacy and the Scientific Community: The Looting and Return of the Peking Ancient Observatory's Instruments, 2019, pp. 19-44

Hunt, Michael H.:
The Forgotten Occupation: Peking, 1900-1901, Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 48, No. 4 (Nov., 1979), pp. 501-529

Lai, Guolong:
The emergence of ‘cultural heritage’ in modern China: a historical and legal perspective, In: Matsuda, A and Mengoni, L E (eds.) Reconsidering Cultural Heritage in East Asia, pp. 47–85. London 2016

Chamberlin, Wilbur J.:
Ordered to China: letters of Wilbur J. Chamberlin written from China while under commission from the New York Sun during the Boxer uprising of 1900 and the international complications which followed, 1903 (especially pages 100-107) (txt)

Forman, Ross G.:
Peking Plots: Fictionalizing the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, Victorian Literature and Culture, Vol. 27, No. 1 (1999), pp. 19-48

Leonhard, Robert:
The China Relief Expedition: Joint Coalition Warfare in China, Summer 1900. Laurel, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, n.d. (!!!)

Dorn, Frank:
A Map and History of Peiping, 1936

Hevia, James L.:
English Lessons, The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century China, 2003
Leaving a Brand on China: Missionary Discourse in the Wake of the Boxer Movement, Modern China, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1992), pp. 304-332

www.history.navy.mil:
The Boxer Rebellion
The Marine Corps

Naquin, Susan:
Temples and City Life, 1400-1900, 2000

General Voyron, Régis:
Rapport sur l'expédition de Chine, 1900-1901, Paris, 1904 (txt)

General Frey, Henri:
L'Armée chinoise, Paris, 1904
L’Entrée des alliés à Pékins (14, 15 août 1900), Revue des Deux Mondes, 5e période, tome 19, 1904, pp. 114-155 (en, de)

Fonssagrives, Euge`ne Jean Paul Marie:
Si-ling, Paris, 1907

Knödel, Susanne:
Die Chinasammlung des Museums am Rothenbaum Hamburg, 2023

Weißbrich, Thomas:
From Spoils of War to Gifts of State. Chinese ‘Boxer Flags’ and German Conceptions of History, 1900 to 1955, transfer 1/2022

Satow, Sir Ernest:
Sir Ernest Satow’s Peking diary (Volume I, 1900-1903), 2006

Kalgoorlie Western Argus, Tuesday 25 December 1900, page 58

Americus times-recorder, 4 August 1900

Thomson, H.C.:
China and the powers: a narrative of the outbreak of 1900, 1902

Shanghai Mercury Office:
The Boxer Rising: A History of the Boxer Trouble in China, 1901

Haslinde, Heinrich:
Tagebuch aus China 1900-1901, München 1990

Mishra, Pankaj:
Aus den Ruinen des Empires: Die Revolte gegen den Westen und der Wiederaufstieg Asiens, 2013

Spurny, Till:
Die Plünderung von Kulturgütern in Peking 1900/1901, Berlin 2008

Schwarz, Rainer:
Sai Jinhua und das Ketteler-Denkmal, Widerlegung einer absurden Legende, NOAG 183–184 (2008) 149–166

Goldberger, Josef:
Das Chinabild in der deutschsprachigen Romanliteratur (1900-1930), Thesis, December 2002

Leutner, Mechthild / Mühlhahn, Klaus:
Kolonialkrieg in China. Die Niederschlagung der Boxerbewegung 1900-1901, 2007

von Rosthorn, Paula:
Alexander Pechmann (Hg.), Peking 1900, Paula von Rosthorns Erinnerungen an den Boxeraufstand, März bis August 1900, Böhlau Verlag, Wien 2001.

Fehl, Julius:
The Germans to the front? :, Mit einer Batterie schwerer Haubitzen im "Boxerkrieg" ; ein Tagebuch der Deutschen Expedition nach China 1900 - 190, Lebenserinnerungen, Band 44, Hamburg, 2007

Eberspächer, Cord:
Gerhard und Renate Fehl (Hrsg.): The Germans to the front? Mit einer Batterie schwerer Haubitzen im „Boxerkrieg“. Ein Tagebuch der Deutschen Expedition nach China 1900-1901 von Julius Fehl - Hintergründe, Ursachen und Verlauf, Examensarbeit, 2011.

Kuss, Susanne:
German Colonial Wars and the Context of Military Violence, Harvard University Press, 2017.

Sharf, Frederic A. / Harrington, Peter :
China 1900 : the eyewitnesses speak ; the experience of Westerners in China during the Boxer Rebellion, as described by participants in letters, diaries and photographs, London : Greenhill Books ; Mechanicsburg, PA : Stackpole Books, 2000

Hunt, Michael H. :
The American Remission of the Boxer Indemnity: A Reappraisal, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3 (May, 1972), pp. 539-559

Fleming, Peter:
The siege at Peking, 1959/2001

Cohen, Paul A:
History in three keys : the boxers as event, experience, and myth, 1997

Preston, Diana:
The boxer rebellion : the dramatic story of China's war on foreigners that shook the world in the summer of 1900, 2000

Osprey Men At Arms:
095 The Boxer Rebellion, 1979

Lemaster, Ralpf Edward:
DTIC AD1020108: Marines in the Boxer Rebellion as a Model for Current Marine Corps Operations, Defense Technical Information Center, 2016

Lange, Sven:
DTIC ADA424935: Revolt against the West a comparison of the Boxer Rebellion of 1900-1901 & the current war against terror, Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School, 2004

Lowe, Alan C.:
DTIC ADA382711: Foreign Devils and Boxers: A Concise History of the U.S. Army's Experience with Combined Interoperability during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, Defense Technical Information Center, 2000

Bustamante, David:
DTIC ADA463337: Coalition Operational Command and Control -- Lessons Learned from the Relief of Peking during the Boxer Rebellion, Defense Technical Information Center, 2005

Harlow, William C.:
DTIC ADA241148: Logistical Support of the China Relief Expedition, Defense Technical Information Center, 1991

Jorgensen, Jr, Julius:
DTIC AD0764676: Historical Analysis of the United States Army: 1898 to 1916, Defense Technical Information Center, 1972

Forsyth, Robert Coventry:
The China martyrs of 1900. A complete roll of the Christian heroes martyred in China in 1900, with narratives of survivors, 1904
Narrative of massacres in Shansi, July, 1900, Shanghai : North China Herald Office, 1900

Miller, J. Martin:
China, the yellow peril at war with the world; a history of the Chinese empire from the dawn of civilization to the present time, 1900

Werstein, Irving:
The Boxer Rebellion; anti-foreign terror seizes China, 1900, New York, Watts, 1971

Martin, Christopher:
The Boxer rebellion, London, New York [etc.] Abelard-Schuman, 1968

Keown-Boyd, Henry:
The Boxer rebellion, New York : Dorset Press 1995

Duiker, William J.:
Cultures in collision : the Boxer Rebellion, San Rafael, CA : Presidio Press 1978

Harrington, Peter:
Peking 1900 : the Boxer rebellion, Oxford : Osprey Publishing 2001

Sharf, Frederic A.:
The Boxer Rebellion : China, 1900 : the artists' perspective, Mechanicsburg, Penn. : Stackpole Books, 2000

O'Connor, Richard:
The spirit soldiers; a historical narrative of the Boxer Rebellion, New York, Putnam, 1973

Hirschfeld, Burt:
Fifty-five days of terror; the story of the Boxer Rebellion, New York, J. Messner, 1964

Scott, David:
China and the International System, 1840-1949, State University of New York Press, 2009

Stewart, Norman Robert:
My service days : India, Afghanistan, Suakin '85, and China, London : J. Ouseley, 1908

Dickinson, G. Lowes:
Letters from John Chinaman, London R.B. Johnson, 1904

Ricalton, James:
China through the stereoscope; a journey through the dragon empire at the time of the Boxer uprising, New York : Underwood & Underwood, 1901
The Boxer uprising : Cheefoo, Taku, Tien-tsin : a part of Underwood & Underwood's stereoscopic tour through China, New York : Underwood & Underwood, 1902

Silbey, David:
The Boxer Rebellion and the great game in China, New York : Hill and Wang, 2012

Gamewell, Mary Porter:
Heroine of the Boxer Rebellion, New York : Baptist Board of Education, Dept. of Missionary Education, 1926

Hubbard, Ethel Daniels:
Under marching orders : a story of Mary Porter Gamewell, Cincinnati [Ohio] : Jennings & Graham, 1909

Dix, Charles Cabry:
The World's Navies in the Boxer Rebellion (China 1900), Digby, Long & Co., 1905

Wilson, James Harrison:
Under the old flag; recollections of military operations in the war for the Union, the Spanish war, the Boxer rebellion, New York D. Appleton, 1912

Ronning, Chester:
A memoir of China in revolution: from the Boxer Rebellion to the People's Republic, New York, Pantheon Books, 1974

Basu, Kunal:
The Yellow Emperor's cure, New York : Duckworth Overlook, 2013

Price, Eva Jane:
China journal 1889-1900 : an American missionary family during the Boxer Rebellion : with the letters and diaries of Eva Jane Price and her family, New York : Scribner, 1989

Tan, Chester C.:
The Boxer catastrophe, New York, W.W. Norton, 1971

Headland, Isaac Taylor:
Chinese heroes; being a record of persecutions endured by native Christians in the Boxer uprising, New York, Eaton & Mains; Cincinnati, Jennings & Pye, 1902

Williams, Mark:
Across the Desert of Gobi : a narrative of an escape during the Boxer uprising, June to Sept., 1900, Hamilton, OH : Press of Republican Pub. Co., 1901

Brown, Frederick:
From Tientsin to Peking with the allied forces, London : C.H. Kelly, 1902

Coltman, Robert:
Beleaguered in Peking; the boxer's war against the foreigner, Philadelphia : F.A. Davis co., 1901

Northrop, Henry Davenport:
Chinese horrors and persecutions of the Christians :containing a full account of the great insurrection in China : atrocities of the "Boxers" ... together with the complete history of China down to the present time, Philadelphia : World Bible House, 1900

Ketler, Issac Conrad:
The tragedy of Paotingfu; an authentic story of the lives, services and sacrifices of the Presbyterian, Congregational and China Inland missionaries who suffered martyrdom at Paotingfu, China, June 30th and July 1, New York, F.H. Revell, 1902

Townsend, Walter Ewen:
In memoriam, [S.l. : Priv. print.], 1901

Lynch, George:
The war of the civilisations : being the record of a "foreign devil's" experiences with the allies in China, London : Longmans, Green, 1901

Gipps, George:
The fighting in North China : up to the fall of Tientsin city, Shanghai : Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., 1901

Kiralfy, Imre:
"China", or, "The relief of the Legations" : a historical dramatic spectacle in six tableaux, London : J.J. Keliher & Co., Ltd., 1901

Kilbourne, Charles Evans:
An army boy in Pekin, Philadelphia : Penn Pub. Co., 1912

Ng, Hing-shang:
The upheaval in far Cathay : a novel, Shanghai : Shanghai Mercury, 1904

Great Britain. Foreign Office:
Correspondence respecting the disturbances in China (in continuation of "China no. 3, 1900) : presented to both houses of Parliament by command of His Majesty, February 1901, London : Printed for H.M.S.O. by Harrison, 1901

Griffis, William Elliot:
In the Mikado's service; a story of two battle summers in China, Boston, Chicago, W. A. Wilde company, 1901

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter:
Under the allied flags : a boy's adventures in the international war against the Boxers and China, Boston : Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1901

Edwards, E. H:
Fire and sword in Shansi: the story of the martyrdom of foreigners and Chinese Christians, Edinburgh : Oliphant Anderson & Ferrier, 1903

Casserly, Gordon:
The land of the Boxers, London, New York, Bombay : Longmans, Green, and co., 1903

Cleveland, Harold Irwin:
Massacres of Christians by heathen Chinese, and horrors of the Boxers; containing a complete history of the Boxers; the Tai-Ping insurrection and massacres of the foreign ministers; manners, customs and peculiarities of the Chinese .., Philadelphia, National publishing company, 1903

Will, Allen Sinclair:
World-crisis in China, 1900. A short account of the outbreak of the war with the "Boxers", and ensuing foreign complications, Baltimore, Md., New York, John Murphy company, 1900

Hodge, Edward B.:
In memory of George Yardley Taylor, M.D. : an address, Columbia University Libraries, 1900

Ch'ien, We^n-hsu¨an:
Essentials in Chinese and English documents, Tsingtau : E. Kin, 1908

Pigott, C. A:
Steadfast unto death, or, Martyred for China : memorials of Thomas Wellesley and Jessie Pigott, London : Religious Tract Society, 1903

Conger, Sarah Pike:
Letters from China : with particular reference to the Empress Dowager and the women of China, Chicago : A. C. McClurg, 1910

Paine, Ralph Delahaye:
Roads of adventure, Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1922

Favier, Joseph:
The heart of Pekin bishop A. Favier's diary of the siege May-August, 1900, Boston Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Marlier, 1901

Krausse, Alexis Sidney:
China in decay; the story of a disappearing empire, London, Chapman & Hall, ld., 1900

Wilcox, John:
The War of the Dragon Lady, A Simon Fonthill Novel, 2012

Daggett, Aaron Simon:
America in the China Relief Expedition, Hudson-Kimberly publishing company, 1903

Kocvar, Jan:
Germany and the Boxer Uprising in China, West Bohemian Historical Review, V, 2015, 2, 2015, pp. 121-167

Steinmetz, George:
The Foreign Devil’s Handwriting, German Views of China before “Kiautschou”, Chapter 6 in Precoloniality and the German Colonial State in Qingdao, Samoa, and Southwest Africa, University of Chicago Press, 2007, pp. 361-507

Dube, Abhaya S.:
The Boxer Rebellion, Paper, Ryerson University, 2007

White, Trumbull:
The story of China and her neighbors :, their manners, customs, life and history, from the earliest times to the present, including the Boxer uprising, massacre of foreigners and operations of the allied powers, [Philadelphia?], 1900

Speer, Robert E. (Elliott):
Missions and modern history : a study of the missionary aspects of some great movements of the nineteenth century, , Vol. 2, New York ; Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co., 1904, Vol. 1, Vol. 2
Scrapbooks : China. v.4. (China, Korea, Japan), 1904

Esherick, Joseph:
The origins of the Boxer Uprising, Berkeley : University of California Press, 1987

Purcell, Victor:
The Boxer Uprising, a background study, Cambridge [Eng.] University Press, 1963

The Boxer Uprising by Victor Purcell:
Review by: T. A. Hsia, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 83, No. 3 (Aug. - Sep., 1963), pp. 388-391

Andersson, Johan Gunnar:
The dragon and the foreign devils, Little, Brown, and company, 1928

Brandt, Nat:
Massacre in Shansi, [Syracuse, N.Y.] : Syracuse University Press, 1994

Selby, John Millin:
The paper dragon; an account of the China Wars, 1840-1900, New York, Praeger, 1968

Gray, Jack:
Rebellions and Revolutions, Oxford University Press, 2002

Gelber, Harry Gregor:
The dragon and the foreign devils : China and the world, 1100 BC to the present, London ; New York : Bloomsbury, 2007

Sturgis, L. C:
The overcoming of the dragon, [New York : Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society], 1908

Lowrie, John Marshall:
International law and diplomacy of the Boxer Uprising in China, Thesis, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1909

Hibbert, Christopher:
The dragon wakes : China and the West, 1793-1911, Harmondsworth : Penguin, 1984

Ewing, Charles:
Death throes of a dynasty : letters and diaries of Charles and Bessie Ewing, missionaries to China, Kent, Ohio : Kent State University Press, 1990

Robert Bickers and R. G. Tiedemann:
The Boxers, China, and the World, Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, 2007 (review)

Robert Bickers and R. G. Tiedemann:
The Boxers, China, and the World, Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, 2007 (review)

Cheminon, Fauvel-Gallais:
Les événements militaires en Chine, R. Chapelot (Paris), 1902 (txt)

l’Ecole de Guerre et au CEHD – Centre d’Etudes et d’Histoire de la Défense:
L’expédition internationale de Chine (1900-1901), 2001-2002 (de)

Thiriez, Régine:
The German Envoy's Vision of China Mumm von Schwarzenstein's Photographic Album, 1900–1902, Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation, 9:3, 1993, 273-289

Afakv's Memories, online article,


Drew, Edward B.:
Sir Robert Hart and His Life Work in China, The Journal of Race Development , Jul., 1913, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jul., 1913), pp. 1-33

Hart, Robert:
China and Her Foreign Trade, The North American Review, Vol. 172, No. 530 (Jan., 1901), pp. 59-71

Twain, Mark:
To the Person Sitting in Darkness, The North American Review , Feb., 1901, Vol. 172, No. 531 (Feb., 1901), pp. 161-176

Crozier, William:
Some Observations on the Pekin Relief Expedition, The North American Review , Feb., 1901, Vol. 172, No. 531 (Feb., 1901), pp. 225-240

Twain, Mark:
To My Missionary Critics, The North American Review , Apr., 1901, Vol. 172, No. 533 (Apr., 1901), pp. 520-534

Smith, Judson:
The Missionaries and Their Critics, The North American Review , Apr., 1901, Vol. 172, No. 533 (Apr., 1901), pp. 724-733

Hart, Robert:
These from the Land of Sinim, Essays on the Chinese Question. London 1901, (pp.87-89)


Cyrill Method:
Revoluce v Cíne, 1900


Boxer Material:
in Chinese, The Chronicle of the Forbidden Boxers in Ping Yuan (Qing Dynasty) by Naixuan Lao (ed.) Kai Jiang (ed.), 2021



Général Legrand-Girarde:
Un quart de siècle au service de la France (Carnets 1894-1918), 1954.


Photoalbums:
Ostasien 1900-1902 [Germany] : Lichtdruck M. Glückstadt & Münden, 1902.

50 Views Of Siege Of Peking 1900, Charles A. (Andrews) Killie, 1857-1916. (photographer)

Bonhams, 21 March 2018, lot 70 (pdf),




Literature on "Russen Auktionen" and others

Auktionshaus Lepke, Berlin
6 November 1928
4 June 1929
12 May 1931

Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, 1928, 29 Oktober + 5 November 1928

Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger, 1928, 2 November 1928

Frankfurter Zeitung, 1928, 13 November 1928

Pantheon, 1928, pp. 507–511 + pp. 523–528

Enderlein, Angelika: Der Berliner Kunsthandel in der Weimarer Republik und im NS-Staat, Zum Schicksal der Sammlung Graetz, 2006, p. 60-61

United States District Court, S. D. New York, May 18, 1976, United States District Court, S. D. New York, May 18, 1976, George STROGANOFF-SCHERBATOFF, Plaintiff, v. Henry H. WELDON, Defendant. George STROGANOFF-SCHERBATOFF, Plaintiff, v. Charles B. WRIGHTSMAN and Jayne Wrightsman, Defendants.

Bayer, Waltraud: Pretiosen für Devisen: Sowjetische Kunstexporte nach Deutschland in der Zwischenkriegszeit, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas , 2000, Neue Folge, Bd. 48, H. 2 (2000), pp. 250-263

Koeppe, Wolfram: Gone with the Wind to the Western Hemisphere — Selling off Furniture by David Roentgen and Other Decorative Arts of the Eighteenth Century, Canadian-American Slavic Studies, Canadian-American Slavic studies. Revue canadienne-américaine d'études slaves, January 2009, 43(4), pp. 245-272

Fuhrmeister, Christian und Kienlechner, Susanne: Tatort Nizza: — Kunstgeschichte zwischen Kunsthandel, Kunstraub und Verfolgung, from: Kunstgeschichte im "Dritten Reich", 2008, pp. 405-429 (here: 408)

Heuß, Anja: Stalins Auktionen in Berlin. Sedimente 2, Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des Kunsthandels, Bonn, 1997, S. 85–94.


von zur Mühlen, Ilse : Finance, Taxes and Provenance: — A German Museum Acquisition of Chinese Antiquities in 1935, Journal for Art Market Studies 3 (2018), pp. 1-16

------------------------------

Ignazio, Dandolo: A Modern Anabasis : The official diary of Colonel Garioni, the commander of the Italian contingent in China (1900-1901), Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient. Tome 78, 1991. pp. 317-335

Brown, Arthur Judson: New Forces in Old China, Fleming H. Revell Company, 1904 (txt)

Bazin, René: L'enseigne de vaisseau Paul Henry, défenseur de la mission de Pékin, Maison Alfred Mame et fils (Tours), 1924 (txt)

Brasme, Pierre: Les tribulations d’un Messin en Chine : le capitaine Charles de Lardemelle dans la guerre des Boxers (1900), Chroniques du Graoully 2006, pp. 42-49 (en, de)

Guillot, Lieutenant-Colonel: PÉKIN pendant l'Occupation Etrangère, Editeur militaire, 1904 (txt), (map)



Clark, Anthony E. : Hagiography & Historicity: Li Wenyu's Quanhuo ji Account of the 1900 Siege of Beitang, American Oriental Society (AOS) Western Branch meeting, (2014 Annual Meeting, Stanford University) October 30-September 1, 2014






"He loaded his cannon on camels. People who heard their thunderous roar near and far submitted"

China Marches West
Peter C. Perdue
p. 305